|Labeler Name||Pharmaceutical Associates, Inc.|
|Dosage & Substance||solution hydrocodone bitartrate; acetaminophen|
|Date First Marketed||August 18, 2008|
Zamicet® (hydrocodone bitartrate and acetaminophen oral solution) is indicated for the relief of moderate to moderately severe pain.
This product should not be administered to patients who have previously exhibited hypersensitivity to hydrocodone, acetaminophen, or any other component of this product.
Patients known to be hypersensitive to other opioids may exhibit cross-sensitivity to hydrocodone.
Potential effects of high dosage are also listed in the OVERDOSAGE section.
Cardio-renal: Bradycardia, cardiac arrest, circulatory collapse, renal toxicity, renal tubular necrosis, hypotension.
Central Nervous System/Psychiatric: Anxiety, dizziness, drowsiness, dysphoria, euphoria, fear, general malaise, impairment of mental and physical performance, lethargy, light-headedness, mental clouding, mood changes, psychological dependence, sedation, somnolence progressing to stupor or coma.
Endocrine: Hypoglycemic coma.
Gastrointestinal System: Abdominal pain, constipation, gastric distress, heartburn, hepatic necrosis, hepatitis, occult blood loss, nausea, peptic ulcer, and vomiting.
Genitourinary System: Spasm of vesical sphincters, ureteral spasm, and urinary retention.
Hematologic: Agranulocytosis, hemolytic anemia, iron deficiency anemia, prolonged bleeding time, thrombocytopenia.
Hypersensitivity: Allergic reactions.
Musculoskeletal: Skeletal muscle flaccidity.
Respiratory Depression: Acute airway obstruction, apnea, dose-related respiratory depression (see OVERDOSAGE), shortness of breath.
Special Senses: Cases of hearing impairment or permanent loss have been reported predominantly in patients with chronic overdose.
Skin: Cold and clammy skin, diaphoresis, pruritus, rash.
Acetaminophen has been associated with cases of acute liver failure, at times resulting in liver transplant and death. Most of the cases of liver injury are associated with the use of acetaminophen at doses that exceed 4000 milligrams per day, and often involve more than one acetaminophen-containing product. The excessive intake of acetaminophen may be intentional to cause self-harm or unintentional as patients attempt to obtain more pain relief or unknowingly take other acetaminophen-containing products.
The risk of acute liver failure is higher in individuals with underlying liver disease and in individuals who ingest alcohol while taking acetaminophen.
Instruct patients to look for acetaminophen or APAP on package labels and not to use more than one product that contains acetaminophen. Instruct patients to seek medical attention immediately upon ingestion of more than 4000 milligrams of acetaminophen per day, even if they feel well.
Serious Skin Reactions
Rarely, acetaminophen may cause serious skin reactions such as acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), which can be fatal. Patients should be informed about the signs of serious skin reactions, and use of the drug should be discontinued at the first appearance of skin rash or any other sign of hypersensitivity.
There have been post-marketing reports of hypersensitivity and anaphylaxis associated with use of acetaminophen. Clinical signs included swelling of the face, mouth, and throat, respiratory distress, urticaria, rash, pruritus, and vomiting. There were infrequent reports of life-threatening anaphylaxis requiring emergency medical attention. Instruct patients to discontinue Zamicet® immediately and seek medical care if they experience these symptoms. Do not prescribe Zamicet® for patients with acetaminophen allergy.
At high doses or in sensitive patients, hydrocodone may produce dose-related respiratory depression by acting directly on the brain stem respiratory center. Hydrocodone also affects the center that controls respiratory rhythm, and may produce irregular and periodic breathing.
Infants may have increased sensitivity to the respiratory depressant effects of opioids (see PRECAUTIONS, Pediatric Use). If use of hydrocodone bitartrate and acetaminophen oral solution in such patients is contemplated, it should be administered cautiously, in substantially reduced initial doses, by personnel experienced in administering opioids to infants, and with intensive monitoring.
Head Injury and Increased Intracranial Pressure
The respiratory depressant effects of narcotics and their capacity to elevate cerebrospinal fluid pressure may be markedly exaggerated in the presence of head injury, other intracranial lesions or a preexisting increase in intracranial pressure. Furthermore, narcotics produce adverse reactions which may obscure the clinical course of patients with head injuries.
Acute Abdominal Conditions
The administration of narcotics may obscure the diagnosis or clinical course of patients with acute abdominal conditions.
Misuse, Abuse and Diversion of Opioids
Zamicet® contains hydrocodone, an opioid agonist, and is a Schedule II controlled substance. Opioid agonists have the potential for being abused and are sought by abusers and people with addiction disorders, and are subject to diversion.
Zamicet® can be abused in a manner similar to other opioid agonists, legal or illicit. This should be considered when prescribing or dispensing Zamicet® in situations where the physician or pharmacist is concerned about an increased risk of misuse, abuse or diversion (see DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE).
Following an acute overdosage, toxicity may result from hydrocodone or acetaminophen.
Signs and Symptoms
Serious overdose with hydrocodone is characterized by respiratory depression (a decrease in respiratory rate and/or tidal volume, Cheyne-Stokes respiration, cyanosis), extreme somnolence progressing to stupor or coma, skeletal muscle flaccidity, cold and clammy skin, and sometimes bradycardia and hypotension. In severe overdosage, apnea, circulatory collapse, cardiac arrest and death may occur.
In acetaminophen overdosage: dose-dependent, potentially fatal hepatic necrosis is the most serious adverse effect. Renal tubular necrosis, hypoglycemic coma and coagulation defects may also occur.
Early symptoms following a potentially hepatotoxic overdose may include: nausea, vomiting, diaphoresis and general malaise. Clinical and laboratory evidence of hepatic toxicity may not be apparent until 48 to 72 hours post-ingestion.
A single or multiple drug overdose with hydrocodone and acetaminophen is a potentially lethal polydrug overdose, and consultation with a regional poison control center is recommended.
Immediate treatment includes support of cardiorespiratory function and measures to reduce drug absorption. Oxygen, intravenous fluids, vasopressors, and other supportive measures should be employed as indicated. Assisted or controlled ventilation should also be considered.
For hydrocodone overdose, primary attention should be given to the reestablishment of adequate respiratory exchange through provision of a patent airway and the institution of assisted or controlled ventilation. The narcotic antagonist naloxone hydrochloride is a specific antidote against respiratory depression which may result from overdosage or unusual sensitivity to narcotics, including hydrocodone. Since the duration of action of hydrocodone may exceed that of the antagonist, the patient should be kept under continued surveillance, and repeated doses of the antagonist should be administered as needed to maintain adequate respiration. A narcotic antagonist should not be administered in the absence of clinically significant respiratory or cardiovascular depression.
Gastric decontamination with activated charcoal should be administered just prior to N-acetylcysteine (NAC) to decrease systemic absorption if acetaminophen ingestion is known or suspected to have occurred within a few hours of presentation. Serum acetaminophen levels should be obtained immediately if the patient presents 4 hours or more after ingestion to assess potential risk of hepatoxicity; acetaminophen levels drawn less than 4 hours post-ingestion may be misleading. To obtain the best possible outcome, NAC should be administered as soon as possible where impending or evolving liver injury is suspected. Intravenous NAC may be administered when circumstances preclude oral administration.
Vigorous supportive therapy is required in severe intoxication. Procedures to limit the continuing absorption of the drug must be readily performed since the hepatic injury is dose dependent and occurs early in the course of intoxication.
Special Risk Patients
As with any narcotic analgesic agent, Zamicet® should be used with caution in elderly or debilitated patients, and those with severe impairment of hepatic or renal function, hypothyroidism, Addison’s disease, prostatic hypertrophy or urethral stricture. The usual precautions should be observed and the possibility of respiratory depression should be kept in mind.
Hydrocodone suppresses the cough reflex; as with all narcotics, caution should be exercised when Zamicet® is used postoperatively and in patients with pulmonary disease.
Zamicet® (hydrocodone bitartrate and acetaminophen oral solution) is supplied in liquid form for oral administration.
May be habit forming (see PRECAUTIONS, Information for Patients, and DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE).
Hydrocodone bitartrate is an opioid analgesic and antitussive which occurs as fine, white crystals or as a crystalline powder. It is affected by light. The chemical name is 4, 5α-epoxy-3-methoxy-17-methylmorphinan-6-one tartrate (1:1) hydrate (2:5). It has the following structural formula:
C18H21NO3∙ C4H6O6∙ 2½ H2O M.W. 494.490
Acetaminophen, 4′-hydroxyacetanilide, a slightly bitter, white, odorless, crystalline powder, is a non-opiate, non-salicylate analgesic and antipyretic. It has the following structural formula:
C8H9NO2 M.W. 151.16
|Per 7.5 mL||Per 15 mL|
|Hydrocodone bitartrate||5 mg||10 mg|
|Acetaminophen||163 mg||325 mg|
In addition Zamicet® contains the following inactive ingredients: citric acid, edetate disodium, glycerin, methylparaben, propylene glycol, purified water, saccharin sodium, sorbitol solution, sucrose, with D&C Yellow No. 10 as coloring and natural and artificial flavoring.