Symbyax (Olanzapine And Fluoxetine Hydrochloride)


Indications

SYMBYAX® is indicated for the treatment of:

  • Acute depressive episodes in Bipolar I Disorder.
  • Treatment resistant depression (Major Depressive Disorder in patient who do not respond to 2 separate trials of different antidepressants of adequate dose and duration in the current episode).

contraindications

4.1 Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)


The use of MAOIs intended to treat psychiatric disorders with SYMBYAX or within weeks of stopping treatment with SYMBYAX is contraindicated because of an increased risk of serotonin syndrome. The use of SYMBYAX within 14 days of stopping an MAOI intended to treat psychiatric disorders is also contraindicated

Starting SYMBYAX in a patient who is being treated with MAOIs such as linezolid or intravenous methylene blue is also contraindicated because of an increased risk of serotonin syndrome..

4.2 Other Contraindications

  • Pimozide
  • Thioridazine

Pimozide and thioridazine prolong the QT interval. SYMBYAX can increase the levels of pimozide and thioridazine through inhibition of CYP2D6. SYMBYAX can also prolong the QT interval.

adverse reactions

The following adverse reactions are discussed in more detail in other sections of the labeling:

  • Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults
  • Increased Mortality in Elderly Patients with Dementia-Related Psychosis
  • Neuroleptic Malignant syndrome (NMS)
  • Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS)
  • Hyperglycemia
  • Dyslipidemia
  • Weight Gain
  • Serotonin Syndrome
  • Angle-Closure Glaucoma
  • Allergic Reactions and Rash
  • Activation of Mania/Hypomania
  • Tardive Dyskinesia
  • Orthostatic Hypotension
  • Falls
  • Leukopenia, Neutropenia, and Agranulocytosis
  • Dysphagia
  • Seizures
  • Abnormal Bleeding
  • Hyponatremia
  • Potential for Cognitive and Motor Impairment
  • Body Temperature Dysregulation
  • QT Prolongation
  • Hyperprolactinemia
  • Discontinuation Adverse Reactions

6.1 Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect or predict the rates observed in practice.

The data in the tables represent the proportion of individuals who experienced, at least once, a treatment-emergent adverse reaction of the type listed. A reaction was considered treatment-emergent if it occurred for the first time or worsened while receiving therapy following baseline evaluation.

Adults — The information below is derived from a clinical study database for SYMBYAX consisting of 2547 patients with treatment resistant depression, depressive episodes associated with Bipolar I Disorder, Major Depressive Disorder with psychosis, or sexual dysfunction with approximately 1085 patient-years of exposure. The conditions and duration of treatment with SYMBYAX varied greatly and included (in overlapping categories) open-label and double-blind phases of studies, inpatients and outpatients, fixed-dose and dose-titration studies, and short-term or long-term exposure.

Adverse Reactions Associated with Discontinuation of Treatment in Short-Term, Controlled Studies Including Depressive Episodes Associated with Bipolar I Disorder and Treatment Resistant Depression — Overall, 11.3% of the 771 patients in the SYMBYAX group discontinued due to adverse reactions compared with 4.4% of the 477 patients for placebo. Adverse reactions leading to discontinuation associated with the use of SYMBYAX (incidence of at least 1% for SYMBYAX and greater than that for placebo) using MedDRA Dictionary coding were weight increased (2%) and sedation (1%) versus placebo patients which had 0% incidence of weight increased and sedation.

Commonly Observed Adverse Reactions in Controlled Studies Including Depressive Episodes Associated with Bipolar I Disorder and Treatment Resistant Depression — In short-term studies, the most commonly observed adverse reactions associated with the use of SYMBYAX (incidence ≥5% and at least twice that for placebo in the SYMBYAX-controlled database) using MedDRA Dictionary coding were: disturbance in attention, dry mouth, fatigue, hypersomnia, increased appetite, peripheral edema, sedation, somnolence, tremor, vision blurred, and weight increased. Adverse reactions reported in clinical trials of olanzapine and fluoxetine in combination are generally consistent with treatment-emergent adverse reactions during olanzapine or fluoxetine monotherapy.

In a 47-week maintenance study in adults with treatment resistant depression, adverse reactions associated with SYMBYAX use were generally similar to those seen in short-term studies. Weight gain, hyperlipidemia, and hyperglycemia were observed in SYMBYAX-treated patients throughout the study.

Adverse Reactions Occurring at an Incidence of 2% or More in Short-Term Controlled Studies Including Depressive Episodes Associated with Bipolar I Disorder and Treatment Resistant Depression — Table 16 enumerates the treatment-emergent adverse reactions associated with the use of SYMBYAX (incidence of at least 2% for SYMBYAX and twice or more than for placebo). The SYMBYAX-controlled column includes patients with various diagnoses while the placebo column includes only patients with bipolar depression and major depression with psychotic features.

Table 16: Adverse Reactions: Incidence in the Short-Term Controlled Clinical Studies in Adults

a Includes edema, edema peripheral, pitting edema, generalized edema, eyelid edema, face edema, gravitational edema, localized edema, periorbital edema, swelling, joint swelling, swelling face, and eye swelling.

b Includes somnolence, sedation, hypersomnia, and lethargy.

System Organ Class Adverse Reaction Percentage of Patients
Reporting Event
SYMBYAX-Controlled
(N=771)
Placebo

(N=477)
Eye disorders Vision blurred 5 2
Gastrointestinal disorders Dry mouth 15 6
Flatulence 3 1
Abdominal distension 2 0
General disorders and administration site conditions Fatigue 12 2
Edemaa 15 2
Asthenia 3 1
Pain 2 1
Pyrexia 2 1
Infections and infestations Sinusitis 2 1
Investigations Weight increased 25 3
Metabolism and nutrition disorders Increased appetite 20 4
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders Arthralgia 4 1
Pain in extremity 3 1
Musculoskeletal stiffness 2 1
Nervous system disorders Somnolenceb 27 11
Tremor 9 3
Disturbance in attention 5 1
Psychiatric disorders Restlessness 4 1
Thinking abnormal 2 1
Nervousness 2 1
Reproductive system and breast disorders Erectile dysfunction 2 1

Extrapyramidal Symptoms

— Symptoms of dystonia, prolonged abnormal contractions of muscle groups, may occur in susceptible individuals during the first few days of treatment. Dystonic symptoms include: spasm of the neck muscles, sometimes progressing to tightness of the throat, swallowing difficulty, difficulty breathing, and/or protrusion of the tongue. While these symptoms can occur at low doses, the frequency and severity are greater with high potency and at higher doses of first generation antipsychotic drugs. In general, an elevated risk of acute dystonia may be observed in males and younger age groups receiving antipsychotics; however, events of dystonia have been reported infrequently (<1%) with the olanzapine and fluoxetine combination.

Additional Findings Observed in Clinical Studies

— In the pool of controlled SYMBYAX studies in patients with bipolar depression, there were higher rates of the treatment-emergent adverse reactions decreased libido, anorgasmia, erectile dysfunction and abnormal ejaculation in the SYMBYAX group than in the placebo group. One case of decreased libido led to discontinuation in the SYMBYAX group. In the controlled studies that contained a fluoxetine arm, the rates of decreased libido and abnormal ejaculation in the SYMBYAX group were less than the rates in the fluoxetine group. None of the differences were statistically significant.

Sexual dysfunction, including priapism, has been reported with all SSRIs. While it is difficult to know the precise risk of sexual dysfunction associated with the use of SSRIs, physicians should routinely inquire about such possible side effects.

There are no adequate and well-controlled studies examining sexual dysfunction with SYMBYAX or fluoxetine treatment. Symptoms of sexual dysfunction occasionally persist after discontinuation of fluoxetine treatment.

Difference Among Dose Levels Observed in Other Olanzapine Clinical Trials

In a single 8-week randomized, double-blind, fixed-dose study comparing 10 (N=199), 20 (N=200), and 40 (N=200) mg/day of olanzapine in patients with Schizophrenia or Schizoaffective Disorder, statistically significant differences among 3 dose groups were observed for the following safety outcomes: weight gain, prolactin elevation, fatigue, and dizziness. Mean baseline to endpoint increase in weight (10 mg/day: 1.9 kg; 20 mg/day: 2.3 kg; 40 mg/day: 3 kg) was observed with significant differences between 10 vs 40 mg/day. Incidence of treatment-emergent prolactin elevation >24.2 ng/mL (female) or >18.77 ng/mL (male) at any time during the trial (10 mg/day: 31.2%; 20 mg/day: 42.7%; 40 mg/day: 61.1%) with significant differences between 10 vs 40 mg/day and 20 vs 40 mg/day; fatigue (10 mg/day: 1.5%; 20 mg/day: 2.1%; 40 mg/day: 6.6%) with significant differences between 10 vs 40 and 20 vs 40 mg/day; and dizziness (10 mg/day: 2.6%; 20 mg/day: 1.6%; 40 mg/day: 6.6%) with significant differences between 20 vs 40 mg, was observed.

Other Adverse Reactions Observed in Clinical Studies

Following is a list of treatment-emergent adverse reactions reported by patients treated with SYMBYAX in clinical trials. This listing is not intended to include reactions (1) already listed in previous tables or elsewhere in labeling, (2) for which a drug cause was remote, (3) which were so general as to be uninformative, (4) which were not considered to have significant clinical implications, or (5) which occurred at a rate equal to or less than placebo.

Reactions are classified by body system using the following definitions: frequent adverse reactions are those occurring in at least 1/100 patients; infrequent adverse reactions are those occurring in 1/100 to 1/1000 patients; and rare reactions are those occurring in fewer than 1/1000 patients.

 
Body as a Whole — chills, neck rigidity, photosensitivity reaction; death 1.
 
Cardiovascular System — vasodilatation.
 
Digestive System — diarrhea; gastritis, gastroenteritis, nausea and vomiting, peptic ulcer; gastrointestinal hemorrhage, intestinal obstruction, liver fatty deposit, pancreatitis.
 
Hemic and Lymphatic System — ecchymosis; anemia, thrombocytopenia; leukopenia, purpura.
 
Metabolic and Nutritional — generalized edema, weight loss; bilirubinemia, creatinine increased, gout.
 
Musculoskeletal System — osteoporosis.
 
Nervous System — amnesia; ataxia, buccoglossal syndrome, coma, depersonalization, dysarthria, emotional lability, euphoria, hypokinesia, movement disorder, myoclonus; hyperkinesia, libido increased, withdrawal syndrome.
 
Respiratory System — epistaxis, yawn; laryngismus.
 
Skin and Appendages — alopecia, dry skin, pruritus; exfoliative dermatitis.
 
Special Senses — taste perversion; abnormality of accommodation, dry eyes.
 
Urogenital System — breast pain, menorrhagia 2, urinary frequency, urinary incontinence; amenorrhea 2, female lactation 2, hypomenorrhea 2, metrorrhagia 2, urinary retention, urinary urgency, urination impaired; breast engorgement 2.

1 This term represents a serious adverse event but does not meet the definition for adverse drug reactions. It is included here because of its seriousness.

2 Adjusted for gender.

Other Adverse Reactions Observed with Olanzapine or Fluoxetine Monotherapy

The following adverse reactions were not observed in SYMBYAX-treated patients during premarketing clinical studies but have been reported with olanzapine or fluoxetine monotherapy: aplastic anemia, bruxism, cholestatic jaundice, diabetic coma, dysuria, eosinophilic pneumonia3, erythema multiforme, esophageal ulcer, gynecological bleeding, headache, hypotension, jaundice, neutropenia, restless legs syndrome, sudden unexpected death3, sweating, and violent behaviors3. Random triglyceride levels of ≥1000 mg/dL have been reported.

3 These terms represent serious adverse events but do not meet the definition for adverse drug reactions. They are included here because of their seriousness.

Children and Adolescent Patients (aged 10 to 17 years) with a Diagnosis of Bipolar Depression

The information below is derived from a single, 8-week, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial investigating SYMBYAX for the treatment of bipolar I depression in patients 10 to 17 years of age.

Adverse Reactions Associated with Discontinuation of Treatment in the single pediatric study — Overall, 14.1% of the 170 patients in the SYMBYAX group discontinued due to adverse reactions compared with 5.9% of the 85 patients for placebo. Adverse reactions leading to discontinuation associated with the use of SYMBYAX (incidence of at least 1% for SYMBYAX and greater than that for placebo) using MedDRA Dictionary coding were weight increased (2.9%), suicidal ideation (1.8%), bipolar disorder (1.2%), and somnolence (1.2%) versus placebo patients which had 0% incidence of weight increased, bipolar disorder, and somnolence, and a 1.2% incidence of suicidal ideation.

Adverse Reactions Occurring at an Incidence of 2% or more and greater than placebo — Table 17 enumerates the treatment-emergent adverse reactions associated with the use of SYMBYAX (incidence of at least 2% for SYMBYAX and twice or more than for placebo).

Table 17: Treatment-Emergent Adverse Reactions: Incidence in a 8-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in pediatric bipolar I depression.

a Includes somnolence, sedation, and hypersomnia. No lethargy was reported.

b Includes alanine aminotransferase increased, aspartate aminotransferase increased, hepatic enzyme increased, liver function test abnormal, gamma-glutamyltransferase increased, and transaminases increased.

System Organ Class Adverse Reaction Percentage of Patients
Reporting Event
SYMBYAX
(N=170)
Placebo
(N=85)
Nervous system disorders Somnolencea 24 2
Tremor 9 1
Investigations Weight increased 20 1
Blood triglycerides increased 7 2
Blood cholesterol increased 4 0
Hepatic enzyme increasedb 9 1
Gastrointestinal disorders Dyspepsia 3 1
Metabolism and nutrition disorders Increased appetite 17 1
Psychiatric disorders Anxiety 3 1
Restlessness 3 1
Suicidal ideation 2 1
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders Back pain 2 1
Injury, poisoning and procedural complications Accidental overdose 3 1
Reproductive system and breast disorders Dysmenorrhea 2 0

6.2 Vital Signs and Laboratory Studies

Adults:

Vital Signs — Tachycardia, bradycardia, and orthostatic hypotension have occurred in SYMBYAX-treated patients. The mean standing pulse rate of SYMBYAX-treated patients was reduced by 0.7 beats/min.

Laboratory Changes — In SYMBYAX clinical studies (including treatment resistant depression, depressive episodes associated with Bipolar I Disorder, Major Depressive Disorder with psychosis, or sexual dysfunction), SYMBYAX was associated with statistically significantly greater frequencies for the following treatment-emergent findings in laboratory analytes (normal at baseline to abnormal at any time during the trial) compared to placebo: elevated prolactin (28% vs 5%); elevated urea nitrogen (3% vs 0.8%); elevated uric acid (3% vs 0.5%); low albumin (3% vs 0.3%); low bicarbonate (14% vs 9%); low hemoglobin (3% vs 0%); low inorganic phosphorus (2% vs 0.3%); low lymphocytes (2% vs 0%); and low total bilirubin (15% vs 4%).

As with olanzapine, asymptomatic elevations of hepatic aminotransferases [ALT, AST, and GGT] and alkaline phosphatase have been observed with SYMBYAX. In the SYMBYAX-controlled database, clinically significant ALT elevations (change from <3 times the upper limit of normal [ULN] at baseline to ≥3 times ULN) were observed in 5% (38/698) of patients exposed to SYMBYAX compared with 0.5% (2/378) of placebo-treated patients and 4% (33/751) of olanzapine-treated patients. ALT elevations ≥5 times ULN were observed in 2% (11/701) of SYMBYAX-treated patients, compared to 0.3% (1/379) of placebo-treated patients and 1% (11/760) of olanzapine-treated patients. No patient with elevated ALT values experienced jaundice or liver failure, or met the criteria for Hy’s Rule. ALT values returned to normal, or were decreasing, at last follow-up in the majority of patients who either continued treatment with SYMBYAX or discontinued SYMBYAX.

Rare postmarketing reports of hepatitis have been received in patients treated with olanzapine. Very rare cases of cholestatic or mixed liver injury have also been reported in the postmarketing period in patients treated with olanzapine.

Caution should be exercised in patients with signs and symptoms of hepatic impairment, in patients with pre-existing conditions associated with limited hepatic functional reserve, and in patients who are being treated with potentially hepatotoxic drugs.

An increase in creatine phosphokinase has been reported very rarely in SYMBYAX-treated patients and infrequently in clinical trials of olanzapine-treated patients.

QT Interval Prolongation — In patients treated with SYMBYAX QTcF≥450 msec for males and QTcF≥470 msec for females has been reported frequently (≥1%). The incidence of QTcF>500 msec associated with SYMBYAX treatment in clinical trials has been rare and was not significantly different from the incidence associated with placebo. The mean increase in QTc interval for SYMBYAX-treated patients (5.17 msec) in the one clinical study directly comparing SYMBYAX to placebo in adult patients was significantly greater than that for placebo-treated patients (-1.66 msec).

Children and Adolescents (aged 10 to 17 years):

In a single 8-week randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial investigating SYMBYAX for treatment of bipolar I depression in patients 10 to 17 years of age, the following was observed:

Vital Signs — In the SYMBYAX-treated patients compared with placebo-treated patients, the mean orthostatic blood pressure and standing pulse rate were not significantly different between treatment groups.

Body Weight: An increase in weight greater than or equal to 7% occurred in 52.4% of the SYMBYAX group and 3.6% of the placebo group. Weight gain greater than or equal to 15% occurred in 14.1% of the SYMBYAX group and none of the placebo group.

Laboratory Changes — SYMBYAX was associated with statistically significantly greater frequencies for the following treatment-emergent findings in laboratory analytes (normal or low at baseline to abnormal at any time during the trial) compared to placebo: elevated ALT (45.9% vs 2.5%); elevated AST (33.7% vs 7.6%); high fasting total cholesterol (28.9% vs 8.2%); high fasting LDL cholesterol (19.7% vs 6.5%); high fasting triglycerides (52.3% vs 27.3%), and elevated prolactin (85% vs 36%). No patient with elevated hepatic enzyme values experienced jaundice or liver failure, or met the criteria for Hy’s Rule. Five patients experienced an adverse event potentially associated with elevated prolactin; these events included dysmenorrhoea, galactorrhoea, and ovulation disorder.

QT Interval Prolongation — SYMBYAX was associated with a statistically significantly greater mean increase in QTcF interval (8.2 msec [95% CI 6.2, 10.2]) compared with placebo. No patients developed QTc increases ≥60 msec or QTc ≥480 msec.

6.3 Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of SYMBYAX. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is difficult to reliably estimate their frequency or evaluate a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Adverse reactions reported since market introduction that were temporally (but not necessarily causally) related to SYMBYAX therapy include the following: rhabdomyolysis and venous thromboembolic events (including pulmonary embolism and deep venous thrombosis).

warnings and precautions

5.1 Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults

Patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), both adult and pediatric, may experience worsening of their depression and/or the emergence of suicidal ideation and behavior (suicidality) or unusual changes in behavior, whether or not they are taking antidepressant medications, and this risk may persist until significant remission occurs. Suicide is a known risk of depression and certain other psychiatric disorders, and these disorders themselves are the strongest predictors of suicide. There has been a long-standing concern, however, that antidepressants may have a role in inducing worsening of depression and the emergence of suicidality in certain patients during the early phases of treatment. Pooled analyses of short-term placebo-controlled trials of antidepressant drugs (SSRIs and others) showed that these drugs increase the risk of suicidal thinking and behavior (suicidality) in children, adolescents, and young adults (ages 18 to 24) with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and other psychiatric disorders. Short-term studies did not show an increase in the risk of suicidality with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults beyond age 24; there was a reduction with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults aged 65 and older.

The pooled analyses of placebo-controlled trials in children and adolescents with MDD, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), or other psychiatric disorders included a total of 24 short-term trials of 9 antidepressant drugs in over 4400 patients. The pooled analyses of placebo-controlled trials in adults with MDD or other psychiatric disorders included a total of 295 short-term trials (median duration of 2 months) of 11 antidepressant drugs in over 77,000 patients. There was considerable variation in risk of suicidality among drugs, but a tendency toward an increase in the younger patients for almost all drugs studied. There were differences in absolute risk of suicidality across the different indications, with the highest incidence in MDD. The risk differences (drug versus placebo), however, were relatively stable within age strata and across indications. These risk differences (drug-placebo difference in the number of cases of suicidality per 1000 patients treated) are provided in Table 1.

Table 1: Suicidality per 1000 Patients Treated
Age Range Drug-Placebo Difference in Number of Cases of Suicidality per 1000 Patients Treated
Increases Compared to Placebo
<18 14 additional cases
18-24 5 additional cases
Decreases Compared to Placebo
25-64 1 fewer case
≥65 6 fewer cases

No suicides occurred in any of the pediatric trials. There were suicides in the adult trials, but the number was not sufficient to reach any conclusion about drug effect on suicide.

It is unknown whether the suicidality risk extends to longer-term use, i.e., beyond several months. However, there is substantial evidence from placebo-controlled maintenance trials in adults with depression that the use of antidepressants can delay the recurrence of depression.

All patients being treated with antidepressants for any indication should be monitored appropriately and observed closely for clinical worsening, suicidality, and unusual changes in behavior, especially during the initial few months of a course of drug therapy, or at times of dose changes, either increases or decreases.

The following symptoms, anxiety, agitation, panic attacks, insomnia, irritability, hostility, aggressiveness, impulsivity, akathisia (psychomotor restlessness), hypomania, and mania, have been reported in adult and pediatric patients being treated with antidepressants for Major Depressive Disorder as well as for other indications, both psychiatric and nonpsychiatric. Although a causal link between the emergence of such symptoms and either the worsening of depression and/or the emergence of suicidal impulses has not been established, there is concern that such symptoms may represent precursors to emerging suicidality.

Consideration should be given to changing the therapeutic regimen, including possibly discontinuing the medication, in patients whose depression is persistently worse, or who are experiencing emergent suicidality or symptoms that might be precursors to worsening depression or suicidality, especially if these symptoms are severe, abrupt in onset, or were not part of the patient’s presenting symptoms.

If the decision has been made to discontinue treatment, medication should be tapered, as rapidly as is feasible, but with recognition that abrupt discontinuation can be associated with certain symptoms.

Families and caregivers of patients being treated with antidepressants for Major Depressive Disorder or other indications, both psychiatric and nonpsychiatric, should be alerted about the need to monitor patients for the emergence of agitation, irritability, unusual changes in behavior, and the other symptoms described above, as well as the emergence of suicidality, and to report such symptoms immediately to health care providers. Such monitoring should include daily observation by families and caregivers. Prescriptions for SYMBYAX should be written for the smallest quantity of capsules consistent with good patient management, in order to reduce the risk of overdose.

It should be noted that SYMBYAX is not approved for use in treating any indications in patients less than 10 years of age.

5.2 Increased Mortality in Elderly Patients with Dementia-Related Psychosis

Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death. SYMBYAX is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis [see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions (5.21), and Patient Counseling Information (17.3)].

In olanzapine placebo-controlled clinical trials of elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis, the incidence of death in olanzapine-treated patients was significantly greater than placebo-treated patients (3.5% vs 1.5%, respectively).

Meta-Analysis of Antipsychotic Use in Dementia-Related Psychosis — Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death. Analyses of seventeen placebo-controlled trials (modal duration of 10 weeks), largely in patients taking atypical antipsychotic drugs, revealed a risk of death in drug-treated patients of between 1.6 to 1.7 times the risk of death in placebo-treated patients. Over the course of a typical 10-week controlled trial, the rate of death in drug-treated patients was about 4.5%, compared to a rate of about 2.6% in the placebo group. Although the causes of death were varied, most of the deaths appeared to be either cardiovascular (e.g., heart failure, sudden death) or infectious (e.g., pneumonia) in nature. Observational studies suggest that, similar to atypical antipsychotic drugs, treatment with conventional antipsychotic drugs may increase mortality. The extent to which the findings of increased mortality in observational studies may be attributed to the antipsychotic drug as opposed to some characteristic(s) of the patients is not clear. SYMBYAX (olanzapine and fluoxetine) is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis.

Cerebrovascular Adverse Events (CVAE), Including Stroke — Cerebrovascular adverse events (e.g., stroke, transient ischemic attack), including fatalities, were reported in patients in trials of olanzapine in elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis. In placebo-controlled trials, there was a significantly higher incidence of cerebrovascular adverse events in patients treated with olanzapine compared to patients treated with placebo. Olanzapine and SYMBYAX are not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis

5.3 Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS)

A potentially fatal symptom complex sometimes referred to as NMS has been reported in association with administration of antipsychotic drugs, including olanzapine. Clinical manifestations of NMS are hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, altered mental status, and evidence of autonomic instability (irregular pulse or blood pressure, tachycardia, diaphoresis, and cardiac dysrhythmia). Additional signs may include elevated creatinine phosphokinase, myoglobinuria (rhabdomyolysis), and acute renal failure.

The diagnostic evaluation of patients with this syndrome is complicated. In arriving at a diagnosis, it is important to exclude cases where the clinical presentation includes both serious medical illness (e.g., pneumonia, systemic infection, etc.) and untreated or inadequately treated extrapyramidal signs and symptoms (EPS). Other important considerations in the differential diagnosis include central anticholinergic toxicity, heat stroke, drug fever, and primary central nervous system pathology.

The management of NMS should include: 1) immediate discontinuation of antipsychotic drugs and other drugs not essential to concurrent therapy, 2) intensive symptomatic treatment and medical monitoring, and 3) treatment of any concomitant serious medical problems for which specific treatments are available. There is no general agreement about specific pharmacological treatment regimens for NMS.

If after recovering from NMS, a patient requires treatment with an antipsychotic, the patient should be carefully monitored, since recurrences of NMS have been reported.

5.4 Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS)

Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) has been reported with olanzapine exposure. DRESS may present with a cutaneous reaction (such as rash or exfoliative dermatitis), eosinophilia, fever, and/or lymphadenopathy with systemic complications such as hepatitis, nephritis, pneumonitis, myocarditis, and/or pericarditis. DRESS is sometimes fatal. Discontinue SYMBYAX if DRESS is suspected.

5.5 Metabolic Changes

Atypical antipsychotic drugs have been associated with metabolic changes including hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and weight gain. Metabolic changes may be associated with increased cardiovascular/cerebrovascular risk. Olanzapine’s specific metabolic profile is presented below.

Hyperglycemia and Diabetes Mellitus

Adults — Physicians should consider the risks and benefits when prescribing SYMBYAX to patients with an established diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, or having borderline increased blood glucose level (fasting 100-126 mg/dL, nonfasting 140-200 mg/dL). Patients taking SYMBYAX should be monitored regularly for worsening of glucose control. Patients starting treatment with SYMBYAX should undergo fasting blood glucose testing at the beginning of treatment and periodically during treatment. Any patient treated with atypical antipsychotics should be monitored for symptoms of hyperglycemia including polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, and weakness. Patients who develop symptoms of hyperglycemia during treatment with atypical antipsychotics should undergo fasting blood glucose testing. In some cases, hyperglycemia has resolved when the atypical antipsychotic was discontinued; however, some patients required continuation of anti-diabetic treatment despite discontinuation of the suspect drug

Hyperglycemia, in some cases extreme and associated with ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar coma or death, has been reported in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics, including olanzapine alone, as well as olanzapine taken concomitantly with fluoxetine. Assessment of the relationship between atypical antipsychotic use and glucose abnormalities is complicated by the possibility of an increased background risk of diabetes mellitus in patients with schizophrenia and the increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus in the general population. Epidemiological studies suggest an increased risk of treatment-emergent hyperglycemia-related adverse reactions in patients treated with the atypical antipsychotics. While relative risk estimates are inconsistent, the association between atypical antipsychotics and increases in glucose levels appears to fall on a continuum and olanzapine appears to have a greater association than some other atypical antipsychotics.

Mean increases in blood glucose have been observed in patients treated (median exposure of 9.2 months) with olanzapine in phase 1 of the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE). The mean increase of serum glucose (fasting and nonfasting samples) from baseline to the average of the 2 highest serum concentrations was 15.0 mg/dL.

In a study of healthy volunteers, subjects who received olanzapine (N=22) for 3 weeks had a mean increase compared to baseline in fasting blood glucose of 2.3 mg/dL. Placebo-treated subjects (N=19) had a mean increase in fasting blood glucose compared to baseline of 0.34 mg/dL.

In an analysis of 7 controlled clinical studies, 2 of which were placebo-controlled, with treatment duration up to 12 weeks, SYMBYAX was associated with a greater mean change in random glucose compared to placebo (+8.65 mg/dL vs. -3.86 mg/dL). The difference in mean changes between SYMBYAX and placebo was greater in patients with evidence of glucose dysregulation at baseline (including those patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus or related adverse reactions, patients treated with anti-diabetic agents, patients with a baseline random glucose level ≥200 mg/dL, or a baseline fasting glucose level ≥126 mg/dL). SYMBYAX-treated patients had a greater mean HbA1c increase from baseline of 0.15% (median exposure 63 days), compared to a mean HbA1c decrease of 0.04% in fluoxetine-treated subjects (median exposure 57 days) and a mean HbA1c increase of 0.12% in olanzapine-treated patients (median exposure 56 days).

In an analysis of 6 controlled clinical studies, a larger proportion of SYMBYAX-treated subjects had glycosuria (4.4%) compared to placebo-treated subjects (1.4%).

The mean change in nonfasting glucose in patients exposed at least 48 weeks was +5.9 mg/dL (N=425).

Table 2 shows short-term and long-term changes in random glucose levels from adult SYMBYAX studies.

Table 2: Changes in Random Glucose Levels from Adult SYMBYAX Studies

a Not Applicable.

Up to 12 weeks exposure At least 48 weeks exposure
Laboratory Analyte Category Change (at least once) from Baseline Treatment Arm N Patients N Patients
Random Glucose Normal to High
(<140 mg/dL to ≥200 mg/dL)
SYMBYAX 609 2.3% 382 3.1%
Placebo 346 0.3% NAa NAa
Borderline to High
(≥140 mg/dL and <200 mg/dL to ≥200 mg/dL)
SYMBYAX 44 34.1% 27 37.0%
Placebo 28 3.6% NAa NAa

In a 47-week SYMBYAX study, the mean change from baseline to endpoint in fasting glucose was +4.81 mg/dL (n=130). Table 3 shows the categorical changes in fasting glucose.

Table 3: Changes in Fasting Glucose Levels from a Single Adult SYMBYAX Study

a Not Applicable.

Up to 27 Weeks Exposure
(Randomized, Double-Blind Phase)
Up to 47 Weeks Exposure
Laboratory Analyte Category Change (at least once) from Baseline Treatment Arm N Patients N Patients
Fasting Glucose Normal to High
(<100 mg/dL to ≥126 mg/dL)
SYMBYAX 90 4.4% 130 11.5%
Fluoxetine 96 5.2% NAa NAa
Borderline to High
(≥100 mg/dL and <126 mg/dL to ≥126 mg/dL)
SYMBYAX 98 18.4% 79 32.9%
Fluoxetine 97 7.2% NAa NAa

Controlled fasting glucose data is limited for SYMBYAX; however, in an analysis of 5 placebo-controlled olanzapine monotherapy studies with treatment duration up to 12 weeks, olanzapine was associated with a greater mean change in fasting glucose levels compared to placebo (+2.76 mg/dL vs. +0.17 mg/dL).

The mean change in fasting glucose for olanzapine-treated patients exposed at least 48 weeks was +4.2 mg/dL (N=487). In analyses of patients who completed 9-12 months of olanzapine therapy, mean change in fasting and nonfasting glucose levels continued to increase over time.

Children and Adolescents — In a single, 8-week, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial investigating SYMBYAX for treatment of bipolar I depression in patients 10 to 17 years of age, there were no clinically meaningful differences observed between SYMBYAX and placebo for mean change in fasting glucose levels. Table 4 shows categorical changes in fasting blood glucose from the pediatric SYMBYAX study.

Table 4: Changes in Fasting Glucose Levels from a Single Pediatric SYMBYAX Study in Bipolar Depression

a Impaired Glucose Tolerance.

Up to 8 weeks exposure
Laboratory Analyte Category Change (at least once) from Baseline Treatment Arm N Patients
Fasting Glucose Normal to High
(<100 mg/dL to ≥126 mg/dL)
SYMBYAX 125 4.8%
Placebo 65 1.5%
Normal/IGTa to High
(<126 mg/dL to ≥126 mg/dL)
SYMBYAX 156 5.8%
Placebo 78 1.3%
Normal/IGT (<126 mg/dL) to ≥140 mg/dL) SYMBYAX 156 1.9%
Placebo 78 0.0%

Olanzapine Monotherapy in Adolescents — In an analysis of 3 placebo-controlled olanzapine monotherapy studies of adolescent patients, including those with Schizophrenia (6 weeks) or Bipolar I Disorder (manic or mixed episodes) (3 weeks), olanzapine was associated with a greater mean change from baseline in fasting glucose levels compared to placebo (+2.68 mg/dL vs -2.59 mg/dL). The mean change in fasting glucose for adolescents exposed at least 24 weeks was +3.1 mg/dL (N=121). Table 5 shows short-term and long-term changes in fasting blood glucose from adolescent olanzapine monotherapy studies.

Table 5: Changes in Fasting Glucose Levels from Adolescent Olanzapine Monotherapy Studies

a Not Applicable.

Up to 12 weeks exposure At least 24 weeks exposure
Laboratory Analyte Category Change (at least once) from Baseline Treatment Arm N Patients N Patients
Fasting Glucose Normal to High
(<100 mg/dL to ≥126 mg/dL)
Olanzapine 124 0% 108 0.9%
Placebo 53 1.9% NAa NAa
Borderline to High
(≥100 mg/dL and <126 mg/dL to ≥126 mg/dL)
Olanzapine 14 14.3% 13 23.1%
Placebo 13 0% NAa NAa

Dyslipidemia

Undesirable alterations in lipids have been observed with SYMBYAX use. Clinical monitoring, including baseline and periodic follow-up lipid evaluations in patients using SYMBYAX, is recommended.

Adults — Clinically meaningful, and sometimes very high (>500 mg/dL), elevations in triglyceride levels have been observed with SYMBYAX use. Clinically meaningful increases in total cholesterol have also been seen with SYMBYAX use.

In an analysis of 7 controlled clinical studies, 2 of which were placebo-controlled, with treatment duration up to 12 weeks, SYMBYAX-treated patients had an increase from baseline in mean random total cholesterol of 12.1 mg/dL compared to an increase from baseline in mean random total cholesterol of 4.8 mg/dL for olanzapine-treated patients and a decrease in mean random total cholesterol of 5.5 mg/dL for placebo-treated patients. Table 6 shows categorical changes in nonfasting lipid values.

In long-term olanzapine and fluoxetine in combination studies (at least 48 weeks), changes (at least once) in nonfasting total cholesterol from normal at baseline to high occurred in 12% (N=150) and changes from borderline to high occurred in 56.6% (N=143) of patients. The mean change in nonfasting total cholesterol was 11.3 mg/dL (N=426).

Table 6: Changes in Nonfasting Lipids Values from Controlled Clinical Studies with Treatment Duration up to 12 Weeks
Laboratory Analyte Category Change (at least once) from Baseline Treatment Arm N Patients
Nonfasting
Triglycerides
Increase by ≥50 mg/dL SYMBYAX 174 67.8%
Olanzapine 172 72.7%
Normal to High
(<150 mg/dL to ≥500 mg/dL)
SYMBYAX 57 0%
Olanzapine 58 0%
Borderline to High
(≥150 mg/dL and <500 mg/dL to ≥500 mg/dL)
SYMBYAX 106 15.1%
Olanzapine 103 8.7%
Nonfasting
Total Cholesterol
Increase by ≥40 mg/dL SYMBYAX 685 35%
Olanzapine 749 22.7%
Placebo 390 9%
Normal to High
(<200 mg/dL to ≥240 mg/dL)
SYMBYAX 256 8.2%
Olanzapine 279 2.9%
Placebo 175 1.7%
Borderline to High
(≥200 mg/dL and <240 mg/dL to ≥240 mg/dL)
SYMBYAX 213 36.2%
Olanzapine 261 27.6%
Placebo 111 9.9%

A 47-week SYMBYAX study demonstrated mean changes from baseline to endpoint in fasting total cholesterol (+1.24 mg/dL), LDL cholesterol (+0.29 mg/dL), direct HDL cholesterol (-2.13 mg/dL), and triglycerides (+11.33 mg/dL). Table 7 shows the categorical changes in fasting lipids.

Table 7: Changes in Fasting Lipids Values from a Controlled Study with SYMBYAX Treatment Duration up to 47 Weeks

a Not Applicable.

Up to 27 Weeks Treatment
(Randomized, Double-Blind Phase)
Up to 47 Weeks Treatment
Laboratory Analyte Category Change (at least once) from Baseline Treatment Arm N Patients N Patients
Fasting Total Cholesterol Normal to High (<200 mg/dL to ≥240 mg/dL) SYMBYAX 47 2.1% 83 19.3%
Fluoxetine 59 3.4% NAa NAa
Borderline to High (≥200 and <240 mg/dL to ≥240 mg/dL) SYMBYAX 75 28.0% 73 69.9%
Fluoxetine 83 20.5% NAa NAa
Fasting LDL Cholesterol Normal to High
(<100 mg/dL to ≥160 mg/dL)
SYMBYAX 22 4.5% 46 8.7%
Fluoxetine 26 0% NAa NAa
Borderline to High (≥100 mg/dL and <160 mg/dL to ≥160 mg/dL) SYMBYAX 115 17.4% 128 46.9%
Fluoxetine 134 10.4% NAa NAa
Fasting HDL
Cholesterol
Normal to Low
(≥40 mg/dL to <40 mg/dL)
SYMBYAX 199 39.2% 193 45.1%
Fluoxetine 208 25.5% NAa NAa
Fasting Triglycerides Normal to High
(<150 mg/dL to ≥200 mg/dL)
SYMBYAX 68 16.2% 115 46.1%
Fluoxetine 74 5.4% NAa NAa
Borderline to High (≥150 mg/dL and <200 mg/dL to ≥200 mg/dL) SYMBYAX 47 51.1% 40 72.5%
Fluoxetine 41 26.8% NAa NAa

Fasting lipid data is limited for SYMBYAX; however, in an analysis of 5 placebo-controlled olanzapine monotherapy studies with treatment duration up to 12 weeks, olanzapine-treated patients had increases from baseline in mean fasting total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides of 5.3 mg/dL, 3.0 mg/dL, and 20.8 mg/dL respectively compared to decreases from baseline in mean fasting total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides of 6.1 mg/dL, 4.3 mg/dL, and 10.7 mg/dL for placebo-treated patients. For fasting HDL cholesterol, no clinically meaningful differences were observed between olanzapine-treated patients and placebo-treated patients. Mean increases in fasting lipid values (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides) were greater in patients without evidence of lipid dysregulation at baseline, where lipid dysregulation was defined as patients diagnosed with dyslipidemia or related adverse reactions, patients treated with lipid lowering agents, patients with high baseline lipid levels.

In long-term olanzapine studies (at least 48 weeks), patients had increases from baseline in mean fasting total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides of 5.6 mg/dL, 2.5 mg/dL, and 18.7 mg/dL, respectively, and a mean decrease in fasting HDL cholesterol of 0.16 mg/dL. In an analysis of patients who completed 12 months of therapy, the mean nonfasting total cholesterol did not increase further after approximately 4-6 months.

The proportion of olanzapine-treated patients who had changes (at least once) in total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol or triglycerides from normal or borderline to high, or changes in HDL cholesterol from normal or borderline to low, was greater in long-term studies (at least 48 weeks) as compared with short-term studies. Table 8 shows categorical changes in fasting lipids values.

Table 8: Changes in Fasting Lipids Values from Adult Olanzapine Monotherapy Studies

a Not Applicable.

  Up to 12 weeks exposure At least 48 weeks exposure
Laboratory Analyte Category Change (at least once) from Baseline Treatment Arm N Patients N Patients
 
Increase by ≥50 mg/dL Olanzapine 745 39.6% 487 61.4%
  Placebo 402 26.1% NAa NAa
Fasting Normal to High Olanzapine 457 9.2% 293 32.4%
Triglycerides (<150 mg/dL to ≥200 mg/dL) Placebo 251 4.4% NAa NAa
Borderline to High Olanzapine 135 39.3% 75 70.7%
(≥150 mg/dL and <200 mg/dL to ≥200 mg/dL) Placebo 65 20.0% NAa NAa
 
Increase by ≥40 mg/dL Olanzapine 745 21.6% 489 32.9%
Placebo 402 9.5% NAa NAa
Fasting Normal to High Olanzapine 392 2.8% 283 14.8%
Total Cholesterol (<200 mg/dL to ≥240 mg/dL) Placebo 207 2.4% NAa NAa
Borderline to High Olanzapine 222 23.0% 125 55.2%
(≥200 mg/dL and <240 mg/dL to ≥240 mg/dL) Placebo 112 12.5% NAa NAa
 
Increase by ≥30 mg/dL Olanzapine 536 23.7% 483 39.8%
Placebo 304 14.1% NAa NAa
Fasting Normal to High Olanzapine 154 0% 123 7.3%
LDL Cholesterol (<100 mg/dL to ≥160 mg/dL) Placebo 82 1.2% NAa NAa
Borderline to High Olanzapine 302 10.6% 284 31.0%
(≥100 mg/dL and <160 mg/dL to ≥160 mg/dL) Placebo 173 8.1% NAa NAa

In phase 1 of the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE), over a median exposure of 9.2 months, the mean increase in triglycerides in patients taking olanzapine was 40.5 mg/dL. In phase 1 of CATIE, the median increase in total cholesterol was 9.4 mg/dL.

Children and Adolescents — In a single, 8-week, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial investigating SYMBYAX for treatment of bipolar I depression in patients 10 to 17 years of age, there were clinically meaningful and statistically significant differences observed between SYMBYAX and placebo for mean change in fasting total cholesterol (+16.3 mg/dL vs. -4.3 mg/dL, respectively), LDL cholesterol (+9.7 mg/dL vs -3.5 mg/dL, respectively), and triglycerides (+35.4 mg/dL vs. -3.5 mg/dL, respectively).

The magnitude and frequency of changes in lipids were greater in children and adolescents than previously observed in adults. Table 9 shows categorical changes in fasting lipids values from the pediatric SYMBYAX study.

Table 9: Changes in Fasting Lipids Values from a Single Pediatric SYMBYAX Study in Bipolar Depression
Laboratory Analyte Category Change (at least once) from Baseline Treatment Arm Up to 8 weeks exposure
N Patients
 
Fasting
Triglycerides
Increase by ≥50 mg/dL SYMBYAX 158 70.3%
Placebo 81 38.3%
Normal to High
(<90 mg/dL to ≥130 mg/dL)
SYMBYAX 71 39.4%
Placebo 31 19.4%
Borderline to High
(≥90 mg/dL and <130 mg/dL to ≥130 mg/dL)
SYMBYAX 13 84.6%
Placebo 12 33.3%
Normal/borderline to High
(<130 mg/dL to ≥130 mg/dL)
SYMBYAX 106 52.8%
Placebo 56 25.0%
Normal to borderline/high
(<90 mg/dL to ≥90 mg/dL)
SYMBYAX 71 73.2%
Placebo 31 41.9%
Normal/borderline/high to very high
(<500 mg/dL to ≥500 mg/dL)
SYMBYAX 158 2.5%
Placebo 81 1.2%
 
Fasting
Total Cholesterol
Increase by ≥40 mg/dL SYMBYAX 158 52.5%
Placebo 81 8.6%
Normal to High
(<170 mg/dL to ≥200 mg/dL)
SYMBYAX 81 12.3%
Placebo 44 4.5%
Borderline to High
(≥170 mg/dL and <200 mg/dL to ≥200 mg/dL)
SYMBYAX 22 72.7%
Placebo 11 24.3%
Normal/borderline to High
(<200 mg/dL to ≥200 mg/dL)
SYMBYAX 126 32.5%
Placebo 67 10.4%
Normal to borderline/high
(<170 mg/dL to ≥170 mg/dL)
SYMBYAX 81 58.0%
Placebo 44 31.8%
 
Fasting
LDL Cholesterol
Increase by ≥30 mg/dL SYMBYAX 158 53.8%
Placebo 81 23.5%
Normal to High
(<110 mg/dL to ≥130 mg/dL)
SYMBYAX 112 13.4%
Placebo 62 6.5%
Borderline to High
(≥110 mg/dL and <130 mg/dL to ≥130 mg/dL)
SYMBYAX 12 75.0%
Placebo 3 0.0%
Normal/borderline to High
(<130 mg/dL to ≥130 mg/dL)
SYMBYAX 138 21.7%
Placebo 77 7.8%
Normal to borderline/high
(<110 mg/dL to ≥110 mg/dL)
SYMBYAX 112 30.4%
Placebo 62 14.5%

Olanzapine Monotherapy in Adolescents — In an analysis of 3 placebo-controlled olanzapine monotherapy studies of adolescents, including those with Schizophrenia (6 weeks) or Bipolar I Disorder (manic or mixed episodes) (3 weeks), olanzapine-treated adolescents had increases from baseline in mean fasting total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides of 12.9 mg/dL, 6.5 mg/dL, and 28.4 mg/dL, respectively, compared to increases from baseline in mean fasting total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol of 1.3 mg/dL and 1.0 mg/dL, and a decrease in triglycerides of 1.1 mg/dL for placebo-treated adolescents. For fasting HDL cholesterol, no clinically meaningful differences were observed between olanzapine-treated adolescents and placebo-treated adolescents.

In long-term olanzapine studies (at least 24 weeks), adolescents had increases from baseline in mean fasting total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides of 5.5 mg/dL, 5.4 mg/dL, and 20.5 mg/dL, respectively, and a mean decrease in fasting HDL cholesterol of 4.5 mg/dL. Table 10 shows categorical changes in fasting lipids values in adolescents.

Table 10: Changes in Fasting Lipids Values from Adolescent Olanzapine Monotherapy Studies

a Not Applicable.

Laboratory Analyte Category Change (at least once) from Baseline Treatment Arm Up to 6 weeks exposure At least 24 weeks exposure
N Patients N Patients
Fasting
Triglycerides
Increase by ≥50 mg/dL Olanzapine 138 37.0% 122 45.9%
Placebo 66 15.2% NAa NAa
Normal to High
(<90 mg/dL to >130 mg/dL)
Olanzapine 67 26.9% 66 36.4%
Placebo 28 10.7% NAa NAa
Borderline to High
(≥90 mg/dL and ≤130 mg/dL to >130 mg/dL)
Olanzapine 37 59.5% 31 64.5%
Placebo 17 35.3% NAa NAa
 
Fasting
Total Cholesterol
Increase by ≥40 mg/dL Olanzapine 138 14.5% 122 14.8%
Placebo 66 4.5% NAa NAa
Normal to High
(<170 mg/dL to ≥200 mg/dL)
Olanzapine 87 6.9% 78 7.7%
Placebo 43 2.3% NAa NAa
Borderline to High
(≥170 mg/dL and <200 mg/dL to ≥200 mg/dL)
Olanzapine 36 38.9% 33 57.6%
Placebo 13 7.7% NAa NAa
 
Fasting
LDL Cholesterol
Increase by ≥30 mg/dL Olanzapine 137 17.5% 121 22.3%
Placebo 63 11.1% NAa NAa
Normal to High
(<110 mg/dL to ≥130 mg/dL)
Olanzapine 98 5.1% 92 10.9%
Placebo 44 4.5% NAa NAa
Borderline to High
(≥110 mg/dL and <130 mg/dL to ≥130 mg/dL)
Olanzapine 29 48.3% 21 47.6%
Placebo 9 0% NAa NAa

Weight Gain

Potential consequences of weight gain should be considered prior to starting SYMBYAX. Patients receiving SYMBYAX should receive regular monitoring of weight.

Adults — In an analysis of 7 controlled clinical studies, 2 of which were placebo-controlled, the mean weight increase for SYMBYAX-treated patients was greater than placebo-treated patients [4 kg (8.8 lb) vs -0.3 kg (-0.7 lb)]. Twenty-two percent of SYMBYAX-treated patients gained at least 7% of their baseline weight, with a median exposure to event of 6 weeks. This was greater than in placebo-treated patients (1.8%). Approximately 3% of SYMBYAX-treated patients gained at least 15% of their baseline weight, with a median exposure to event of 8 weeks. This was greater than in placebo-treated patients (0%). Clinically significant weight gain was observed across all baseline Body Mass Index (BMI) categories. Discontinuation due to weight gain occurred in 2.5% of SYMBYAX-treated patients and 0% of placebo-treated patients.

In long-term olanzapine and fluoxetine in combination studies (at least 48 weeks), the mean weight gain was 6.7 kg (14.7 lb) (median exposure of 448 days, N=431). The percentages of patients who gained at least 7%, 15% or 25% of their baseline body weight with long-term exposure were 66%, 33%, and 10%, respectively. Discontinuation due to weight gain occurred in 1.2% of patients treated with olanzapine and fluoxetine in combination following at least 48 weeks of exposure.

Table 11 presents the distribution of weight gain in a single long-term relapse prevention study of patients treated for up to 47 weeks with SYMBYAX.

Table 11: Weight Gain with SYMBYAX Use in a Single Relapse Prevention Study in Adults
Amount Gained kg (lb) Up to 8 Weeks
(N=881)
(%)
Up to 20 Weeks
(N=651)
(%)
Up to 47 Weeks
(N=220)
(%)
≤0 19.8 14.9 19.1
0 to ≤5 (0-11 lb) 64.1 47.2 37.7
>5 to ≤10 (11-22 lb) 15.1 30.3 27.7
>10 to ≤15 (22-33 lb) 0.9 5.8 10.0
>15 to ≤20 (33-44 lb) 0.1 1.2 3.2
>20 to ≤25 (44-55 lb) 0.0 0.6 1.4
>25 to ≤30 (55-66 lb) 0.0 0.0 0.5
>30 (>66 lb) 0.0 0.0 0.5

In long-term olanzapine studies (at least 48 weeks), the mean weight gain was 5.6 kg (12.3 lb) (median exposure of 573 days, N=2021). The percentages of patients who gained at least 7%, 15%, or 25% of their baseline body weight with long-term exposure were 64%, 32%, and 12%, respectively. Discontinuation due to weight gain occurred in 0.4% of olanzapine-treated patients following at least 48 weeks of exposure.

Table 12 includes data on adult weight gain with olanzapine pooled from 86 clinical trials. The data in each column represent data for those patients who completed treatment periods of the durations specified.

Table 12: Weight Gain with Olanzapine Use in Adults
Amount Gained
kg (lb)
6 Weeks
(N=7465)
(%)
6 Months
(N=4162)
(%)
12 Months
(N=1345)
(%)
24 Months
(N=474)
(%)
36 Months
(N=147)
(%)
≤0 26.2 24.3 20.8 23.2 17.0
0 to ≤5 (0-11 lb) 57.0 36.0 26.0 23.4 25.2
>5 to ≤10 (11-22 lb) 14.9 24.6 24.2 24.1 18.4
>10 to ≤15 (22-33 lb) 1.8 10.9 14.9 11.4 17.0
>15 to ≤20 (33-44 lb) 0.1 3.1 8.6 9.3 11.6
>20 to ≤25 (44-55 lb) 0 0.9 3.3 5.1 4.1
>25 to ≤30 (55-66 lb) 0 0.2 1.4 2.3 4.8
>30 (>66 lb) 0 0.1 0.8 1.2 2

Dose group differences with respect to weight gain have been observed. In a single 8-week randomized, double-blind, fixed-dose study comparing 10 (N=199), 20 (N=200) and 40 (N=200) mg/day of oral olanzapine in adult patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, mean baseline to endpoint increase in weight (10 mg/day: 1.9 kg; 20 mg/day: 2.3 kg; 40 mg/day: 3 kg) was observed with significant differences between 10 vs 40 mg/day.

Children and Adolescents — In a single, 8-week, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial investigating SYMBYAX for the treatment of bipolar I depression in patients 10 to 17 years of age, SYMBYAX was associated with greater mean change in weight compared to placebo (+4.4 kg vs +0.5 kg, respectively). The percentages of children and adolescents who gained at least 7%, 15%, or 25% of their baseline body weight with 8-week exposure were 52%, 14%, and 1%, respectively. The proportion of patients who had clinically significant weight gain was greater in children and adolescent patients compared to short-term data in adults. Discontinuation due to weight gain occurred in 2.9% of SYMBYAX-treated patients and 0% of placebo-treated patients. Table 13 depicts weight gain observed in the pediatric SYMBYAX study.

Table 13: Weight Gain with SYMBYAX Use Seen in a Single Pediatric Study in Bipolar Depression
Amount Gained
kg (lb)
Up to 8 Weeks
(N=170)
(%)
≤0 7.1
0 to ≤5 (0-11 lb) 54.7
>5 to ≤10 (11-22 lb) 31.2
>10 to ≤15 (22-33 lb) 7.1
>15 to ≤20 (33-44 lb) 0
>20 to ≤25 (44-55 lb) 0
>25 to ≤30 (55-66 lb) 0
>30 (>66 lb) 0

Olanzapine Monotherapy in Adolescents — Mean increase in weight in adolescents was greater than in adults. In 4 placebo-controlled trials, discontinuation due to weight gain occurred in 1% of olanzapine-treated patients, compared to 0% of placebo-treated patients.

Table 14: Weight Gain with Olanzapine Use in Adolescents from 4 Placebo-Controlled Trials
Olanzapine-treated patients Placebo-treated patients
Mean change in body weight from baseline (median exposure = 3 weeks) 4.6 kg (10.1 lb) 0.3 kg (0.7 lb)
Percentage of patients who gained at least 7% of baseline body weight 40.6%
(median exposure to 7% = 4 weeks)
9.8%
(median exposure to 7% = 8 weeks)
Percentage of patients who gained at least 15% of baseline body weight 7.1%
(median exposure to 15% = 19 weeks)
2.7%
(median exposure to 15% = 8 weeks)

In long-term olanzapine studies (at least 24 weeks), the mean weight gain was 11.2 kg (24.6 lb) (median exposure of 201 days, N=179). The percentages of adolescents who gained at least 7%, 15%, or 25% of their baseline body weight with long-term exposure were 89%, 55%, and 29%, respectively. Among adolescent patients, mean weight gain by baseline BMI category was 11.5 kg (25.3 lb), 12.1 kg (26.6 lb), and 12.7 kg (27.9 lb), respectively, for normal (N=106), overweight (N=26) and obese (N=17). Discontinuation due to weight gain occurred in 2.2% of olanzapine-treated patients following at least 24 weeks of exposure.

Table 15 shows data on adolescent weight gain with olanzapine pooled from 6 clinical trials. The data in each column represent data for those patients who completed treatment periods of the durations specified. Little clinical trial data is available on weight gain in adolescents with olanzapine beyond 6 months of treatment.

Table 15: Weight Gain with Olanzapine Use in Adolescents
Amount Gained
kg (lb)
6 Weeks
(N=243)
(%)
6 Months
(N=191)
(%)
≤0 2.9 2.1
0 to ≤5 (0-11 lb) 47.3 24.6
>5 to ≤10 (11-22 lb) 42.4 26.7
>10 to ≤15 (22-33 lb) 5.8 22.0
>15 to ≤20 (33-44 lb) 0.8 12.6
>20 to ≤25 (44-55 lb) 0.8 9.4
>25 to ≤30 (55-66 lb) 0 2.1
>30 to ≤35 (66-77 lb) 0 0
>35 to ≤40 (77-88 lb) 0 0
>40 (>88 lb) 0 0.5

5.6 Serotonin Syndrome

The development of a potentially life-threatening serotonin syndrome has been reported with SNRIs and SSRIs, including SYMBYAX, alone but particularly with concomitant use of other serotonergic drugs (including triptans, tricyclic antidepressants, fentanyl, lithium, tramadol, tryptophan, buspirone, amphetamines, and St. John’s Wort) and with drugs that impair metabolism of serotonin (in particular, MAOIs, both those intended to treat psychiatric disorders and also others, such as linezolid and intravenous methylene blue).

Serotonin syndrome symptoms may include mental status changes (e.g., agitation, hallucinations, delirium, and coma), autonomic instability (e.g., tachycardia, labile blood pressure, dizziness, diaphoresis, flushing, hyperthermia), neuromuscular symptoms (e.g., tremor, rigidity, myoclonus, hyperreflexia, incoordination), seizures, and/or gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea). Patients should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome.

The concomitant use of SYMBYAX with MAOIs intended to treat psychiatric disorders is contraindicated. SYMBYAX should also not be started in a patient who is being treated with MAOIs such as linezolid or intravenous methylene blue. All reports with methylene blue that provided information on the route of administration involved intravenous administration in the dose range of 1 mg/kg to 8 mg/kg. No reports involved the administration of methylene blue by other routes (such as oral tablets or local tissue injection) or at lower doses. There may be circumstances when it is necessary to initiate treatment with an MAOI such as linezolid or intravenous methylene blue in a patient taking SYMBYAX. SYMBYAX should be discontinued before initiating treatment with the MAOI

If concomitant use of SYMBYAX with other serotonergic drugs including triptans, tricyclic antidepressants, fentanyl, lithium, tramadol, buspirone, tryptophan, amphetamines, and St. John’s Wort is clinically warranted, patients should be made aware of a potential increased risk for serotonin syndrome, particularly during treatment initiation and dose increases.

Treatment with SYMBYAX and any concomitant serotonergic agents should be discontinued immediately if the above events occur and supportive symptomatic treatment should be initiated.

5.7 Angle-Closure Glaucoma

Angle-Closure Glaucoma — The pupillary dilation that occurs following use of many antidepressant drugs including SYMBYAX may trigger an angle-closure attack in a patient with anatomically narrow angles who does not have a patent iridectomy.

5.8 Allergic Reactions and Rash

In SYMBYAX premarketing controlled clinical studies, the overall incidence of rash or allergic reactions in SYMBYAX-treated patients [4.6% (26/571)] was similar to that of placebo [5.2% (25/477)]. The majority of the cases of rash and/or urticaria were mild; however, 3 patients discontinued (1 due to rash, which was moderate in severity and 2 due to allergic reactions, 1 of which included face edema).

In fluoxetine US clinical studies, 7% of 10,782 fluoxetine-treated patients developed various types of rashes and/or urticaria. Among the cases of rash and/or urticaria reported in premarketing clinical studies, almost a third were withdrawn from treatment because of the rash and/or systemic signs or symptoms associated with the rash. Clinical findings reported in association with rash include fever, leukocytosis, arthralgias, edema, carpal tunnel syndrome, respiratory distress, lymphadenopathy, proteinuria, and mild transaminase elevation. Most patients improved promptly with discontinuation of fluoxetine and/or adjunctive treatment with antihistamines or steroids, and all patients experiencing these reactions were reported to recover completely.

In fluoxetine premarketing clinical studies, 2 patients are known to have developed a serious cutaneous systemic illness. In neither patient was there an unequivocal diagnosis, but 1 was considered to have a leukocytoclastic vasculitis, and the other, a severe desquamating syndrome that was considered variously to be a vasculitis or erythema multiforme. Other patients have had systemic syndromes suggestive of serum sickness.

Since the introduction of fluoxetine, systemic reactions, possibly related to vasculitis, have developed in patients with rash. Although these reactions are rare, they may be serious, involving the lung, kidney, or liver. Death has been reported to occur in association with these systemic reactions.

Anaphylactoid reactions, including bronchospasm, angioedema, and urticaria alone and in combination, have been reported.

Pulmonary reactions, including inflammatory processes of varying histopathology and/or fibrosis, have been reported rarely. These reactions have occurred with dyspnea as the only preceding symptom.

Whether these systemic reactions and rash have a common underlying cause or are due to different etiologies or pathogenic processes is not known. Furthermore, a specific underlying immunologic basis for these reactions has not been identified. Upon the appearance of rash or of other possible allergic phenomena for which an alternative etiology cannot be identified, SYMBYAX should be discontinued.

5.9 Activation of Mania/Hypomania

A major depressive episode may be the initial presentation of Bipolar Disorder. It is generally believed (though not established in controlled trials) that treating such an episode with an antidepressant alone may increase the likelihood of precipitation of a manic episode in patients at risk for Bipolar Disorder. Whether any of the symptoms described for clinical worsening and suicide risk represent such a conversion is unknown. However, prior to initiating treatment with an antidepressant, patients with depressive symptoms should be adequately screened to determine if they are at risk for Bipolar Disorder; such screening should include a detailed psychiatric history, including a family history of suicide, Bipolar Disorder, and depression. It should be noted that SYMBYAX is approved for the acute treatment of depressive episodes associated with Bipolar I Disorder.

In the 3 controlled bipolar depression studies (2 in adults and 1 in children and adolescents [10 to 17 years of age]) there was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of manic reactions (manic reaction or manic depressive reaction) between SYMBYAX- and placebo-treated patients. In 1 adult study, the incidence of manic reactions was (7% [3/43]) in SYMBYAX-treated patients compared to (3% [5/184]) in placebo-treated patients. In the other adult study, the incidence of manic reactions was (2% [1/43]) in SYMBYAX-treated patients compared to (8% [15/193]) in placebo-treated patients. In a single, 8-week, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial investigating SYMBYAX for the treatment of bipolar I depression in patients 10 to 17 years of age, the incidence of manic reactions was (1% [2/170]) in SYMBYAX-treated patients compared to (0% [0/84]) in placebo-treated patients. Because of the cyclical nature of Bipolar I Disorder, patients should be monitored closely for the development of symptoms of mania/hypomania during treatment with SYMBYAX.

5.10 Tardive Dyskinesia

A syndrome of potentially irreversible, involuntary, dyskinetic movements may develop in patients treated with antipsychotic drugs. Although the prevalence of the syndrome appears to be highest among the elderly, especially elderly women, it is impossible to rely upon prevalence estimates to predict, at the inception of antipsychotic treatment, which patients are likely to develop the syndrome. Whether antipsychotic drug products differ in their potential to cause tardive dyskinesia is unknown.

The risk of developing tardive dyskinesia and the likelihood that it will become irreversible are believed to increase as the duration of treatment and the total cumulative dose of antipsychotic drugs administered to the patient increase. However, the syndrome can develop, although much less commonly, after relatively brief treatment periods at low doses or may even arise after discontinuation of treatment.

There is no known treatment for established cases of tardive dyskinesia, although the syndrome may remit, partially or completely, if antipsychotic treatment is withdrawn. Antipsychotic treatment itself, however, may suppress (or partially suppress) the signs and symptoms of the syndrome and thereby may possibly mask the underlying process. The effect that symptomatic suppression has upon the long-term course of the syndrome is unknown.

The incidence of dyskinetic movement in SYMBYAX-treated patients was infrequent. The mean score on the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) in the SYMBYAX-controlled database across clinical studies involving SYMBYAX-treated patients decreased from baseline. Nonetheless, SYMBYAX should be prescribed in a manner that is most likely to minimize the risk of tardive dyskinesia. If signs and symptoms of tardive dyskinesia appear in a patient on SYMBYAX, drug discontinuation should be considered. However, some patients may require treatment with SYMBYAX despite the presence of the syndrome. The need for continued treatment should be reassessed periodically.

5.11 Orthostatic Hypotension

SYMBYAX may induce orthostatic hypotension associated with dizziness, tachycardia, bradycardia and, in some patients, syncope, especially during the initial dose-titration period.

In the SYMBYAX-controlled clinical trials across all indications, there were no significant differences between SYMBYAX-treated patients and olanzapine, fluoxetine- or placebo-treated patients in exposure-adjusted rates of orthostatic systolic blood pressure decreases of at least 30 mm Hg. Orthostatic systolic blood pressure decreases of at least 30 mm Hg occurred in 4.0% (28/705), 2.3% (19/831), 4.5% (18/399), and 1.8% (8/442) of the SYMBYAX, olanzapine, fluoxetine, and placebo groups, respectively. In this group of studies, the incidence of syncope-related adverse reactions (i.e., syncope and/or loss of consciousness) in SYMBYAX-treated patients was 0.4% (3/771) compared to placebo 0.2% (1/477).

In a clinical pharmacology study of SYMBYAX, 3 healthy subjects were discontinued from the trial after experiencing severe, but self-limited, hypotension and bradycardia that occurred 2 to 9 hours following a single 12 mg/50 mg dose of SYMBYAX. Reactions consisting of this combination of hypotension and bradycardia (and also accompanied by sinus pause) have been observed in at least 3 other healthy subjects treated with various formulations of olanzapine (1 oral, 2 intramuscular). In controlled clinical studies, the incidence of patients with a ≥20 bpm decrease in orthostatic pulse concomitantly with a ≥20 mm Hg decrease in orthostatic systolic blood pressure was 0.3% (2/706) in the SYMBYAX group, 0.2% (1/445) in the placebo group, 0.7% (6/837) in the olanzapine group, and 0% (0/404) in the fluoxetine group.

SYMBYAX should be used with particular caution in patients with known cardiovascular disease (history of myocardial infarction or ischemia, heart failure, or conduction abnormalities), cerebrovascular disease, or conditions that would predispose patients to hypotension (dehydration, hypovolemia, and treatment with antihypertensive medications).

5.12 Falls

SYMBYAX may cause somnolence, postural hypotension, motor and sensory instability, which may lead to falls and, consequently, fractures or other injuries. For patients with diseases, conditions, or medications that could exacerbate these effects, complete fall risk assessments when initiating antipsychotic treatment and recurrently for patients on long-term antipsychotic therapy.

5.13 Leukopenia, Neutropenia, and Agranulocytosis

Class Effect — In clinical trial and/or postmarketing experience, events of leukopenia/neutropenia have been reported temporally related to antipsychotic agents, including SYMBYAX. Agranulocytosis has also been reported.

Possible risk factors for leukopenia/neutropenia include preexisting low white blood cell count (WBC) and history of drug induced leukopenia/neutropenia. Patients with a history of a clinically significant low WBC or drug induced leukopenia/neutropenia should have their complete blood count (CBC) monitored frequently during the first few months of therapy and discontinuation of SYMBYAX should be considered at the first sign of a clinically significant decline in WBC in the absence of other causative factors.

Patients with clinically significant neutropenia should be carefully monitored for fever or other symptoms or signs of infection and treated promptly if such symptoms or signs occur. Patients with severe neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count <1000/mm3) should discontinue SYMBYAX and have their WBC followed until recovery.

5.14 Dysphagia

Esophageal dysmotility and aspiration have been associated with antipsychotic drug use. Aspiration pneumonia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with advanced Alzheimer’s disease. SYMBYAX is not approved for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer’s disease.

5.15 Seizures

Seizures occurred in 0.2% (4/2547) of SYMBYAX-treated patients during open-label clinical studies. No seizures occurred in the controlled SYMBYAX studies. Seizures have also been reported with both olanzapine and fluoxetine monotherapy. SYMBYAX should be used cautiously in patients with a history of seizures or with conditions that potentially lower the seizure threshold, e.g., Alzheimer’s dementia. SYMBYAX is not approved for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Conditions that lower the seizure threshold may be more prevalent in a population of ≥65 years of age.

5.16 Abnormal Bleeding

SNRIs and SSRIs, including fluoxetine, may increase the risk of bleeding reactions. Concomitant use of aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, warfarin, and other anti-coagulants may add to this risk. Case reports and epidemiological studies (case-control and cohort design) have demonstrated an association between use of drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and the occurrence of gastrointestinal bleeding. Bleeding reactions related to SNRIs and SSRIs use have ranged from ecchymoses, hematomas, epistaxis, and petechiae to life-threatening hemorrhages.

Patients should be cautioned about the risk of bleeding associated with the concomitant use of SYMBYAX and NSAIDs, aspirin, or other drugs that affect coagulation.

5.17 Hyponatremia

Hyponatremia has been reported during treatment with SNRIs and SSRIs, including fluoxetine and SYMBYAX. In many cases, this hyponatremia appears to be the result of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Cases with serum sodium lower than 110 mmol/L have been reported and appeared to be reversible when SYMBYAX was discontinued. Elderly patients may be at greater risk of developing hyponatremia with SNRIs and SSRIs. Also, patients taking diuretics or who are otherwise volume depleted may be at greater risk. Discontinuation of SYMBYAX should be considered in patients with symptomatic hyponatremia and appropriate medical intervention should be instituted.

Signs and symptoms of hyponatremia include headache, difficulty concentrating, memory impairment, confusion, weakness, and unsteadiness, which may lead to falls. More severe and/or acute cases have been associated with hallucination, syncope, seizure, coma, respiratory arrest, and death.

5.18 Potential for Cognitive and Motor Impairment

SYMBYAX has the potential to impair judgment, thinking, or motor skills. Patients should be cautioned about operating hazardous machinery, including automobiles, until they are reasonably certain that SYMBYAX therapy does not affect them adversely.

Adults — Sedation-related adverse reactions were commonly reported with SYMBYAX treatment occurring at an incidence of 26.6% in SYMBYAX-treated patients compared with 10.9% in placebo-treated patients. Sedation-related adverse reactions (sedation, somnolence, hypersomnia, and lethargy) led to discontinuation in 2% (15/771) of patients in the controlled clinical studies.

Children and Adolescents — In a single, 8-week, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial investigating SYMBYAX for the treatment of bipolar I depression in patients 10 to 17 years of age, somnolence-related adverse events were commonly reported with SYMBYAX treatment occurring at an incidence of 23.5% in SYMBYAX-treated patients compared with 2.4% in placebo-treated patients. Somnolence-related adverse events led to discontinuation in 1.2% (2/170) of patients.

5.19 Body Temperature Dysregulation

Disruption of the body’s ability to reduce core body temperature has been attributed to antipsychotic drugs. Appropriate care is advised when prescribing SYMBYAX for patients who will be experiencing conditions which may contribute to an elevation in core body temperature (e.g., exercising strenuously, exposure to extreme heat, receiving concomitant medication with anticholinergic activity, or being subject to dehydration).

5.20 QT Prolongation

Post-marketing cases of QT interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmia including Torsade de Pointes have been reported in patients treated with fluoxetine. SYMBYAX should be used with caution in patients with congenital long QT syndrome; a previous history of QT prolongation; a family history of long QT syndrome or sudden cardiac death; and other conditions that predispose to QT prolongation and ventricular arrhythmia. Such conditions include concomitant use of drugs that prolong the QT interval; hypokalemia or hypomagnesemia; recent myocardial infarction, uncompensated heart failure, bradyarrhythmias, and other significant arrhythmias; and conditions that predispose to increased fluoxetine exposure (overdose, hepatic impairment, use of CYP2D6 inhibitors, CYP2D6 poor metabolizer status, or use of other highly protein-bound drugs). Fluoxetine is primarily metabolized by CYP2D6

Pimozide and thioridazine are contraindicated for use with SYMBYAX. Avoid the concomitant use of drugs known to prolong the QT interval. These include specific antipsychotics (e.g., ziprasidone, iloperidone, chlorpromazine, mesoridazine, droperidol); specific antibiotics (e.g., erythromycin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, sparfloxacin); Class 1A antiarrhythmic medications (e.g., quinidine, procainamide); Class III antiarrhythmics (e.g., amiodarone, sotalol); and others (e.g., pentamidine, levomethadyl acetate, methadone, halofantrine, mefloquine, dolasetron mesylate, probucol or tacrolimus)

Consider ECG assessment and periodic ECG monitoring if initiating treatment with SYMBYAX in patients with risk factors for QT prolongation and ventricular arrhythmia. Consider discontinuing SYMBYAX and obtaining a cardiac evaluation if patients develop signs or symptoms consistent with ventricular arrhythmia.

In a single, 8-week, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial investigating SYMBYAX for the treatment of bipolar I depression in patients 10 to 17 years of age, there was a statistically significant difference in QTc interval for patients treated with SYMBYAX compared with patients on placebo: mean change in QTcF (Fridericia correction factor) from baseline to endpoint in patients treated with SYMBYAX was 8.2 msec (95% CI 6.2, 10.2). No patient developed QTc increases ≥60 msec or QTc ≥480 msec. Clinicians should use SYMBYAX with caution in those children or adolescents who are known to be particularly at risk for QT prolongation.

5.21 Use in Patients with Concomitant Illness

Clinical experience with SYMBYAX in patients with concomitant systemic illnesses is limited. The following precautions for the individual components may be applicable to SYMBYAX.

Anticholinergic Adverse Reactions — Olanzapine exhibits in vitro muscarinic receptor affinity. In premarketing clinical studies, SYMBYAX was associated with constipation, dry mouth, and tachycardia, all adverse reactions possibly related to cholinergic antagonism. Such adverse reactions were not often the basis for study discontinuations; SYMBYAX should be used with caution in patients with clinically significant prostatic hypertrophy, angle-closure glaucoma, a history of paralytic ileus, or related conditions.

Elderly Patients with Dementia-related Psychosis — In 5 placebo-controlled studies of olanzapine in elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis (n=1184), the following treatment-emergent adverse reactions were reported in olanzapine-treated patients at an incidence of at least 2% and significantly greater than placebo-treated patients: falls, somnolence, peripheral edema, abnormal gait, urinary incontinence, lethargy, increased weight, asthenia, pyrexia, pneumonia, dry mouth, and visual hallucinations. The rate of discontinuation due to adverse reactions was significantly greater with olanzapine than placebo (13% vs 7%). Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with olanzapine are at an increased risk of death compared to placebo. Olanzapine is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis.

As with other CNS-active drugs, SYMBYAX should be used with caution in elderly patients with dementia. SYMBYAX is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis. If the prescriber elects to treat elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis, vigilance should be exercised.

SYMBYAX has not been evaluated or used to any appreciable extent in patients with a recent history of myocardial infarction or unstable heart disease. Patients with these diagnoses were excluded from clinical studies during the premarket testing.

Patients with Cardiovascular Disease — Caution is advised when using SYMBYAX in cardiac patients and in patients with diseases or conditions that could affect hemodynamic responses.

5.22 Hyperprolactinemia

As with other drugs that antagonize dopamine D2 receptors, SYMBYAX elevates prolactin levels, and the elevation persists during administration. Hyperprolactinemia may suppress hypothalamic GnRH, resulting in reduced pituitary gonadotropin secretion. This, in turn, may inhibit reproductive function by impairing gonadal steroidogenesis in both female and male patients. Galactorrhea, amenorrhea, gynecomastia, and erectile dysfunction have been reported in patients receiving prolactin-elevating compounds. Long-standing hyperprolactinemia when associated with hypogonadism may lead to decreased bone density in both female and male subjects.

Tissue culture experiments indicate that approximately one-third of human breast cancers are prolactin dependent in vitro, a factor of potential importance if the prescription of these drugs is contemplated in a patient with previously detected breast cancer. As is common with compounds that increase prolactin release, an increase in mammary gland neoplasia was observed in the olanzapine carcinogenicity studies conducted in mice and rats. Neither clinical studies nor epidemiologic studies conducted to date have shown an association between chronic administration of this class of drugs and tumorigenesis in humans; the available evidence is considered too limited to be conclusive at this time.

Adults — In controlled clinical studies of SYMBYAX (up to 12 weeks), changes from normal to high in prolactin concentrations were observed in 28% of adults treated with SYMBYAX as compared to 5% of placebo-treated patients. The elevations persisted throughout administration of SYMBYAX. In a pooled analysis from clinical studies including 2929 adults treated with SYMBYAX, potentially associated clinical manifestations included menstrual-related events1 (1% [20/1946] of females), sexual function-related events2 (7% [192/2929] of females and males), and breast-related events3 (0.8% [16/1946] of females, 0.2% [2/983] of males).

Children and Adolescents — In a single, 8-week, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial investigating SYMBYAX for the treatment of bipolar I depression in patients 10 to 17 years of age, SYMBYAX was associated with a statistically significant greater mean change from baseline in prolactin levels compared to placebo (8.7 mcg/L vs 0.7 mcg/L, respectively). Although prolactin concentrations were very commonly (>10%) elevated above normal in both the SYMBYAX and placebo groups, more than twice as many SYMBYAX-treated patients were seen with these elevations compared to placebo-treated patients. Five patients experienced an adverse event potentially associated with elevated prolactin; these events included dysmenorrhoea, galactorrhoea, and ovulation disorder.

The magnitude and frequency of change in prolactin in children and adolescents was larger than observed in adult patients treated with SYMBYAX, but was similar to that observed in adolescents treated with olanzapine monotherapy.

Olanzapine Monotherapy

In placebo-controlled olanzapine clinical studies (up to 12 weeks), changes from normal to high in prolactin concentrations were observed in 30% of adults treated with olanzapine as compared to 10.5% of adults treated with placebo. In a pooled analysis from clinical studies including 8136 adults treated with olanzapine, potentially associated clinical manifestations included menstrual-related events1 (2% [49/3240] of females), sexual function-related events2 (2% [150/8136] of females and males), and breast-related events3 (0.7% [23/3240] of females, 0.2% [9/4896] of males).

In placebo-controlled olanzapine monotherapy studies in adolescent patients (up to 6 weeks) with schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder (manic or mixed episodes), changes from normal to high in prolactin concentrations were observed in 47% of olanzapine-treated patients compared to 7% of placebo-treated patients. In a pooled analysis from clinical trials including 454 adolescents treated with olanzapine, potentially associated clinical manifestations included menstrual-related events1 (1% [2/168] of females), sexual function-related events2 (0.7% [3/454] of females and males), and breast-related events3 (2% [3/168] of females, 2% [7/286] of males),.

1 Based on a search of the following terms: amenorrhea, hypomenorrhea, menstruation delayed, and oligomenorrhea.

2 Based on a search of the following terms: anorgasmia, delayed ejaculation, erectile dysfunction, decreased libido, loss of libido, abnormal orgasm, and sexual dysfunction.

3 Based on a search of the following terms: breast discharge, enlargement or swelling, galactorrhea, gynecomastia, and lactation disorder.

Dose group differences with respect to prolactin elevation have been observed. In a single 8-week randomized, double-blind, fixed-dose study comparing 10 (n=199), 20 (n=200) and 40 (n=200) mg/day of oral olanzapine in adult patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, incidence of prolactin elevation >24.2 ng/mL (female) or >18.77 ng/mL (male) at any time during the trial (10 mg/day: 31.2%; 20 mg/day: 42.7%; 40 mg/day: 61.1%) indicated significant differences between 10 vs 40 mg/day and 20 vs 40 mg/day.

5.23 Concomitant Use of Olanzapine and Fluoxetine Products

SYMBYAX contains the same active ingredients that are in Zyprexa®, Zyprexa® Zydis®, Zyprexa ® Relprevv™ (olanzapine), and in Prozac®, Prozac® Weekly™, and Sarafem® (fluoxetine HCl). Caution should be exercised when prescribing these medications concomitantly with SYMBYAX.

5.24 Long Elimination Half-Life of Fluoxetine

Because of the long elimination half-lives of fluoxetine and its major active metabolite, changes in dose will not be fully reflected in plasma for several weeks, affecting both strategies for titration to final dose and withdrawal from treatment. This is of potential consequence when drug discontinuation is required or when drugs are prescribed that might interact with fluoxetine and norfluoxetine following the discontinuation of fluoxetine.

5.25 Discontinuation Adverse Reactions

During marketing of fluoxetine, a component of SYMBYAX, SNRIs, and SSRIs, there have been spontaneous reports of adverse reactions occurring upon discontinuation of these drugs, particularly when abrupt, including the following: dysphoric mood, irritability, agitation, dizziness, sensory disturbances (e.g., paresthesias such as electric shock sensations), anxiety, confusion, headache, lethargy, emotional lability, insomnia, and hypomania. While these reactions are generally self-limiting, there have been reports of serious discontinuation symptoms. Patients should be monitored for these symptoms when discontinuing treatment with fluoxetine. A gradual reduction in the dose rather than abrupt cessation is recommended whenever possible. If intolerable symptoms occur following a decrease in the dose or upon discontinuation of treatment, then resuming the previously prescribed dose may be considered. Subsequently, the physician may continue decreasing the dose but at a more gradual rate. Plasma fluoxetine and norfluoxetine concentration decrease gradually at the conclusion of therapy, which may minimize the risk of discontinuation symptoms with this drug.

general medication guide

Medication Guide

SYMBYAX® (SIM-be-ax)
(olanzapine and fluoxetine)
Capsule

Read the Medication Guide that comes with SYMBYAX® before you start taking it and each time you get a refill. There may be new information. This Medication Guide does not take the place of talking to your doctor about your medical condition or treatment. Talk with your doctor or pharmacist if there is something you do not understand or you want to learn more about SYMBYAX.

What is the most important information I should know about SYMBYAX?

SYMBYAX may cause serious side effects, including:

  1. Suicidal thoughts or actions.
  2. Increased risk of death in elderly people who are confused, have memory loss and have lost touch with reality (dementia-related psychosis).
  3. High blood sugar (hyperglycemia).
  4. High fat levels in your blood (increased cholesterol and triglycerides), especially in children and adolescents age 10 to 17.
  5. Weight gain, especially in children and adolescents age 10 to 17.

These serious side effects are described below.

  1. Suicidal thoughts or actions.
    Antidepressant medicines, depression and other serious mental illnesses, and suicidal thoughts or actions:

    Talk to your, or your family member’s, healthcare provider about:
     
    • all risks and benefits of treatment with antidepressant medicines.
    • all treatment choices for depression or other serious mental illness.
    • Antidepressant medicines may increase suicidal thoughts or actions in some children, teenagers, and young adults within the first few months of treatment.
    • Depression and other serious mental illnesses are the most important causes of suicidal thoughts and actions. Some people may have a particularly high risk of having suicidal thoughts or actions. These include people who have (or have a family history of) bipolar illness (also called manic-depressive illness) or suicidal thoughts or actions.
    • How can I watch for and try to prevent suicidal thoughts and actions in myself or a family member?
      • Pay close attention to any changes, especially sudden changes, in mood, behaviors, thoughts, or feelings. This is very important when an antidepressant medicine is started or when the dose is changed.
      • Call the healthcare provider right away to report new or sudden changes in mood, behavior, thoughts, or feelings.
      • Keep all follow-up visits with the healthcare provider as scheduled. Call the healthcare provider between visits as needed, especially if you have concerns about symptoms.

    Call a healthcare provider right away if you or your family member has any of the following symptoms, especially if they are new, worse, or worry you:

    • thoughts about suicide or dying
    • attempts to commit suicide
    • new or worse depression
    • new or worse anxiety
    • feeling very agitated or restless
    • panic attacks
    • trouble sleeping (insomnia)
    • new or worse irritability
    • acting aggressive, being angry, or violent
    • acting on dangerous impulses
    • an extreme increase in activity and talking (mania)
    • or other unusual changes in behavior or mood.

    What else do I need to know about antidepressant medicines?

    • Never stop an antidepressant medicine without first talking to a healthcare provider. Stopping an antidepressant medicine suddenly can cause other symptoms.
    • Antidepressants are medicines used to treat depression and other illnesses. It is important to discuss all the risks of treating depression and also the risks of not treating it. Patients and their families or other caregivers should discuss all treatment choices with the healthcare provider, not just the use of antidepressants.
    • Antidepressant medicines have other side effects. Talk to the healthcare provider about the side effects of the medicine prescribed for you or your family member.
    • Antidepressant medicines can interact with other medicines. Know all of the medicines that you or your family member takes. Keep a list of all medicines to show the healthcare provider. Do not start new medicines without first checking with your healthcare provider.
    • Not all antidepressant medicines prescribed for children are FDA approved for use in children. Talk to your child’s healthcare provider for more information.
  2. Increased risk of death in elderly people who are confused, have memory loss and have lost touch with reality (dementia-related psychosis). SYMBYAX is not approved for treating psychosis in elderly people with dementia.
  3. High blood sugar (hyperglycemia): High blood sugar can happen if you have diabetes already or if you have never had diabetes. High blood sugar could lead to:
    • build up of acid in your blood due to ketones (ketoacidosis)
    • coma
    • death

    Your doctor should do tests to check your blood sugar before you start taking SYMBYAX and during treatment. In people who do not have diabetes, sometimes high blood sugar goes away when SYMBYAX is stopped. People with diabetes and some people who did not have diabetes before taking SYMBYAX need to take medicine for high blood sugar even after they stop taking SYMBYAX.


    If you have diabetes, follow your doctor’s instructions about how often to check your blood sugar while taking SYMBYAX.


    Call your doctor if you have any of these symptoms of high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) while taking SYMBYAX:

    • feel very thirsty
    • need to urinate more than usual
    • feel very hungry
    • feel weak or tired
    • feel sick to your stomach
    • feel confused, or your breath smells fruity.
  4. High fat levels in your blood (increased cholesterol and triglycerides). High fat levels may happen in people treated with SYMBYAX, especially in children and adolescents (10 to 17 years old). You may not have any symptoms, so your doctor should do blood tests to check your cholesterol and triglyceride levels before you start taking SYMBYAX and during treatment.
  5. Increase in weight (weight gain): Weight gain is common in people who take SYMBYAX. Children and adolescents (10 to 17 years old) who received SYMBYAX, were more likely to gain weight and to gain more weight than adults. Some people may gain a lot of weight while taking SYMBYAX, so you and your doctor should check your weight regularly. Talk to your doctor about ways to control weight gain, such as eating a healthy, balanced diet, and exercising

What is SYMBYAX?

SYMBYAX is a prescription medicine used for:

  • short-term treatment of episodes of depression that happen with Bipolar I Disorder in people age 10 or older.
  • treatment of episodes of depression that do not respond to 2 other medicines, also called treatment resistant depression, in adults.

SYMBYAX contains two medicines, olanzapine and fluoxetine hydrochloride.

It is not known if SYMBYAX is safe and effective in children under the age of 10.

The symptoms of Bipolar I Disorder include alternating periods of depression and high or irritable mood, increased activity and restlessness, racing thoughts, talking fast, impulsive behavior, and a decreased need for sleep. With treatment, some of your symptoms of Bipolar I Disorder may improve.

The symptoms of treatment resistant depression include decreased mood, decreased interest, increased guilty feelings, decreased energy, decreased concentration, changes in appetite, and suicidal thoughts or behavior. With treatment, some of your symptoms of treatment resistant depression may improve.

If you do not think you are getting better, call your doctor.

Who should not take SYMBYAX?

  • Do not take SYMBYAX if you take a Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor (MAOI). Ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist if you are not sure if you take an MAOI, including the antibiotic linezolid.
    • Do not take an MAOI within 5 weeks of stopping SYMBYAX unless directed to do so by your physician.
    • Do not start SYMBYAX if you stopped taking an MAOI in the last 2 weeks unless directed to do so by your physician.

People who take SYMBYAX close in time to an MAOI can have serious and life-threatening side effects, with symptoms including:

  • high fever
  • continued muscle spasms that you cannot control
  • rigid muscles
  • changes in heart rate and blood pressure that happen fast
  • confusion
  • unconsciousness.
  • Do not take SYMBYAX if you take Mellaril® (thioridazine). Do not take Mellaril® within 5 weeks of stopping SYMBYAX. Mellaril can cause serious heart rhythm problems and you could die suddenly.
  • Do not take SYMBYAX if you take the antipsychotic medicine pimozide (Orap®). Do not take pimozide (Orap®) within 5 weeks of stopping SYMBYAX.

What should I tell my doctor before taking SYMBYAX?

SYMBYAX may not be right for you. Before starting SYMBYAX, tell your doctor about all your medical conditions, including if you have or had any of the following:

  • heart problems
  • seizures (convulsions)
  • diabetes or high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia)
  • high cholesterol or triglyceride levels in your blood
  • liver problems
  • low or high blood pressure
  • strokes or “mini-strokes” also called transient ischemic attacks (TIAs)
  • bleeding problems
  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • angle-closure glaucoma
  • enlarged prostate in men
  • bowel obstruction
  • breast cancer
  • are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. It is not known if SYMBYAX will harm your unborn baby.
  • are breast-feeding or plan to breast-feed. Olanzapine and fluoxetine can pass into your breast milk and may harm your baby. You should not breast-feed while taking SYMBYAX. Talk to your doctor about the best way to feed your baby if you take SYMBYAX.

Before starting SYMBYAX, tell your doctor about all the medicines that you take, including

  • Prescription and non-prescription medicines
  • Vitamins, and herbal supplements
  • Triptans used to treat migraine headache
  • Medicines used to treat mood, anxiety, psychotic or thought disorders, including tricyclics, lithium, buspirone, SSRIs, SNRIs, MAOIs, or antipsychotics
  • Tramadol and fentanyl
  • Amphetamines
  • Over-the-counter supplements such as tryptophan or St. John’s Wort
  • Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)

SYMBYAX and some medicines may interact with each other and may not work as well, or cause possible serious side effects. Your doctor can tell you if it is safe to take SYMBYAX with your other medicines. Do not start or stop any medicine while taking SYMBYAX without talking to your doctor first.

If you take SYMBYAX, you should not take any other medicines that contain:

  • olanzapine (the active ingredient in Zyprexa® and Zyprexa® Zydis®) or
  • fluoxetine hydrochloride (the active ingredient in Prozac®, Prozac® Weekly™, and Sarafem®).

You could take too much medicine (overdose).

How should I take SYMBYAX?

  • Take SYMBYAX exactly as prescribed. Your doctor may need to change (adjust) the dose of SYMBYAX until it is right for you.
  • If you miss a dose of SYMBYAX, take the missed dose as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for the next dose, skip the missed dose and take your next dose at the regular time. Do not take two doses of SYMBYAX at the same time.
  • To prevent serious side effects, do not stop taking SYMBYAX suddenly. If you need to stop taking SYMBYAX, your doctor can tell you how to safely stop taking it.
  • If you take too much SYMBYAX, call your doctor or poison control center right away, or get emergency treatment.
  • SYMBYAX can be taken with or without food.
  • SYMBYAX is usually taken one time each day, in the evening.
  • If you do not think you are getting better or have any concerns about your condition while taking SYMBYAX, call your doctor.

What should I avoid while taking SYMBYAX?

  • SYMBYAX can cause sleepiness and may affect your ability to make decisions, think clearly, or react quickly. You should not drive, operate heavy machinery, or do other dangerous activities until you know how SYMBYAX affects you.
  • Avoid drinking alcohol while taking SYMBYAX. Drinking alcohol while you take SYMBYAX may make you sleepier than if you take SYMBYAX alone.

What are the possible side effects of SYMBYAX?

Other possible serious risks:

  • Increased risk of death and increased incidence of stroke or "mini-strokes" called transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) in elderly people with psychosis related to dementia (a brain disorder that lessens the ability to remember, think, and reason). SYMBYAX is not approved for these patients.
  • Severe allergic reactions: Tell your doctor right away if you get red itchy welts (hives) or, a rash alone or with fever and joint pain, while taking SYMBYAX. Call your doctor right away if you become severely ill and have some or all of these symptoms:
    • swelling of your face, eyes, or mouth
    • trouble breathing
  • Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS): NMS is a rare but very serious condition that can happen in people who take antipsychotic medicines, including SYMBYAX. NMS can cause death and must be treated in a hospital. Call your doctor right away if you become severely ill and have some or all of these symptoms:
    • high fever
    • excessive sweating
    • rigid muscles
    • confusion
    • changes in your breathing, heartbeat, and blood pressure
  • Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS): DRESS can occur. Features of DRESS may include rash, fever, swollen glands and other internal organ involvement such as liver, kidney, lung and heart. DRESS is sometimes fatal; therefore, tell your doctor immediately if you experience any of these signs.
  • Tardive Dyskinesia: This condition causes body movements that keep happening and that you cannot control. These movements usually affect the face and tongue. Tardive dyskinesia may not go away, even if you stop taking SYMBYAX. It may also start after you stop taking SYMBYAX. Tell your doctor if you get any body movements that you cannot control.
  • Serotonin Syndrome: This is a condition that can be life threatening. Call your doctor right away if you become severely ill and have some or all of these symptoms:
    • agitation, hallucinations, coma or other changes in mental status
    • coordination problems or muscle twitching (overactive reflexes)
    • racing heartbeat, high or low blood pressure
    • sweating or fever
    • nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea
    • muscle rigidity
    • dizziness
    • flushing
    • tremor
    • seizures
  • Visual problems:
    • eye pain
    • changes in vision
    • swelling or redness in or around the eye
    Only some people are at risk for these problems. You may want to undergo an eye examination to see if you are at risk and receive preventative treatment if you are.
  • Abnormal bleeding: Tell your doctor if you notice any increased or unusual bruising or bleeding while taking SYMBYAX, especially if you take one of these medicines:
    • the blood thinner warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven)
    • a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)
    • aspirin
  • Low salt (sodium) levels in the blood (hyponatremia): Call your doctor right away if you become severely ill and have some or all of these symptoms:
    • headache
    • feel weak
    • confusion
    • problems concentrating
    • memory problems
    • feel unsteady
  • Changes in the electrical activity of your heart (QT prolongation and ventricular arrhythmia including Torsade de Pointes). This condition can be life threatening. The symptoms may include:
    • fast, slow, or irregular heartbeat
    • shortness of breath
    • dizziness or fainting
  • Decreased blood pressure when you change positions, with symptoms of dizziness, fast or slow heart beat, or fainting
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Seizures
  • Problems with control of body temperature: You could become very hot, for instance when you exercise a lot or stay in an area that is very hot. It is important for you to drink water to avoid dehydration. Call your doctor right away if you become severely ill and have some or all of these symptoms of dehydration:
    • sweating too much or not at all
    • dry mouth
    • feeling very hot
    • feeling thirsty
    • not able to produce urine

Common possible side effects of SYMBYAX include: dry mouth, tiredness, sleeping for long period of time, increased appetite, swelling of your hands and feet, drowsiness, tremors (shakes), or blurred vision.

Tell your doctor about any side effect that bothers you or that does not go away.

These are not all the possible side effects with SYMBYAX. For more information, ask your doctor or pharmacist.

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

How should I store SYMBYAX?

  • Store SYMBYAX at room temperature, between 59°F to 86°F (15°C to 30°C).
  • Keep SYMBYAX away from light.
  • Keep SYMBYAX dry and away from moisture. Keep the bottle closed tightly.

Keep SYMBYAX and all medicines out of the reach of children.

General information about SYMBYAX

Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in a Medication Guide. Do not use SYMBYAX for a condition for which it was not prescribed. Do not give SYMBYAX to other people, even if they have the same condition. It may harm them.

This Medication Guide summarizes the most important information about SYMBYAX. If you would like more information, talk with your doctor. You can ask your doctor or pharmacist for information about SYMBYAX that was written for healthcare professionals. For more information about SYMBYAX call 1-800-Lilly-Rx (1-800-545-5979).

What are the ingredients in SYMBYAX?

Active ingredients: olanzapine and fluoxetine hydrochloride

Inactive ingredients: pregelatinized starch, gelatin, dimethicone, titanium dioxide, sodium lauryl sulfate, edible black ink, red iron oxide, yellow iron oxide, and/or black iron oxide.

Medication Guide revised October 24, 2016

Marketed by: Lilly USA, LLC
Indianapolis, IN 46285, USA

Copyright © 2009, 2016, Eli Lilly and Company. All rights reserved.

SYM-0004-MG-20161024

overdosage

SYMBYAX — During premarketing clinical studies of olanzapine and fluoxetine in combination, overdose of both fluoxetine and olanzapine were reported in 5 study subjects. Four of the 5 subjects experienced loss of consciousness (3) or coma (1). No fatalities occurred.

Adverse reactions involving overdose of fluoxetine and olanzapine in combination, and SYMBYAX, have been reported spontaneously to Eli Lilly and Company. An overdose of combination therapy is defined as confirmed or suspected ingestion of a dose of >20 mg olanzapine in combination with a dose of >80 mg fluoxetine. Adverse reactions associated with these reports included somnolence (sedation), impaired consciousness (coma), impaired neurologic function (ataxia, confusion, convulsions, dysarthria), arrhythmias, lethargy, essential tremor, agitation, acute psychosis, hypotension, hypertension, and aggression. Fatalities have been confounded by exposure to additional substances including alcohol, thioridazine, oxycodone, and propoxyphene.

Olanzapine — In postmarketing reports of overdose with olanzapine alone, symptoms have been reported in the majority of cases. In symptomatic patients, symptoms with ≥10% incidence included agitation/aggressiveness, dysarthria, tachycardia, various extrapyramidal symptoms, and reduced level of consciousness ranging from sedation to coma. Among less commonly reported symptoms were the following potentially medically serious reactions: aspiration, cardiopulmonary arrest, cardiac arrhythmias (such as supraventricular tachycardia as well as a patient that experienced sinus pause with spontaneous resumption of normal rhythm), delirium, possible neuroleptic malignant syndrome, respiratory depression/arrest, convulsion, hypertension, and hypotension. Eli Lilly and Company has received reports of fatality in association with overdose of olanzapine alone. In 1 case of death, the amount of acutely ingested olanzapine was reported to be possibly as low as 450 mg of oral olanzapine; however, in another case, a patient was reported to survive an acute olanzapine ingestion of approximately 2 g of oral olanzapine.

Fluoxetine — Worldwide exposure to fluoxetine is estimated to be over 38 million patients (circa 1999). Of the 1578 cases of overdose involving fluoxetine, alone or with other drugs, reported from this population, there were 195 deaths.

Among 633 adult patients who overdosed on fluoxetine alone, 34 resulted in a fatal outcome, 378 completely recovered, and 15 patients experienced sequelae after overdose, including abnormal accommodation, abnormal gait, confusion, unresponsiveness, nervousness, pulmonary dysfunction, vertigo, tremor, elevated blood pressure, erectile dysfunction, movement disorder, and hypomania. The remaining 206 patients had an unknown outcome. The most common signs and symptoms associated with non-fatal overdose were seizures, somnolence, nausea, tachycardia, and vomiting. The largest known ingestion of fluoxetine in adult patients was 8 grams in a patient who took fluoxetine alone and who subsequently recovered. However, in an adult patient who took fluoxetine alone, an ingestion as low as 520 mg has been associated with lethal outcome, but causality has not been established.

Among pediatric patients (ages 3 months to 17 years), there were 156 cases of overdose involving fluoxetine alone or in combination with other drugs. Six patients died, 127 patients completely recovered, 1 patient experienced renal failure, and 22 patients had an unknown outcome. One of the 6 fatalities was a 9-year-old boy who had a history of OCD, Tourette’s Syndrome with tics, attention deficit disorder, and fetal alcohol syndrome. He had been receiving 100 mg of fluoxetine daily for 6 months in addition to clonidine, methylphenidate, and promethazine. Mixed-drug ingestion or other methods of suicide complicated all 6 overdoses in children that resulted in fatalities. The largest ingestion in pediatric patients was 3 grams, which was non-lethal.

Other important adverse reactions reported with fluoxetine overdose (single or multiple drugs) included coma, delirium, ECG abnormalities (such as nodal rhythm, QT-interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias, including torsades de pointes-type arrhythmias), hypotension, mania, neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like reactions, pyrexia, stupor, and syncope.

10.1 Management of Overdose

For current information on the management of SYMBYAX (olanzapine and fluoxetine) overdose, contact a certified poison control center (1-800-222-1222 or www.poison.org). In managing overdose, consider the possibility of multiple drug involvement. In case of acute overdose, establish and maintain an airway and ensure adequate ventilation, which may include intubation. Induction of emesis is not recommended as the possibility of obtundation, seizures, or dystonic reactions of the head and neck following overdose may create a risk for aspiration. Commence cardiovascular monitoring immediately and include continuous electrocardiographic monitoring to detect possible arrhythmias.

A specific precaution involves patients who are taking or have recently taken SYMBYAX and may have ingested excessive quantities of a TCA (tricyclic antidepressant). In such cases, accumulation of the parent TCA and/or an active metabolite increases the possibility of serious sequelae and extends the time needed for close medical observation.

Due to the large volume of distribution of olanzapine and fluoxetine, forced diuresis, dialysis, hemoperfusion, and exchange transfusion are unlikely to be of benefit. No specific antidote for either fluoxetine or olanzapine overdose is known. Treat hypotension and circulatory collapse with appropriate measures such as intravenous fluids and/or sympathomimetic agents. Do not use epinephrine, dopamine, or other sympathomimetics with β-agonist activity, since beta stimulation may worsen hypotension in the setting of olanzapine-induced alpha blockade.

description

SYMBYAX (olanzapine and fluoxetine HCl capsules) combines an atypical antipsychotic and a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, olanzapine (the active ingredient in Zyprexa, and Zyprexa Zydis) and fluoxetine hydrochloride (the active ingredient in Prozac, Prozac Weekly, and Sarafem).

Olanzapine belongs to the thienobenzodiazepine class. The chemical designation is 2-methyl-4-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-10H-thieno[2,3-b] [1,5]benzodiazepine. The molecular formula is C17H20N4S, which corresponds to a molecular weight of 312.44.

Fluoxetine hydrochloride is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). The chemical designation is (±)-N-methyl-3-phenyl-3-[(α,α,α-trifluoro-p-tolyl)oxy]propylamine hydrochloride. The molecular formula is C17H18F3NO•HCl, which corresponds to a molecular weight of 345.79.

The chemical structures are:

Olanzapine is a yellow crystalline solid, which is practically insoluble in water.

Fluoxetine hydrochloride is a white to off-white crystalline solid with a solubility of 14 mg/mL in water.

SYMBYAX capsules are available for oral administration in the following strength combinations:

3 mg/25 mg 6 mg/25 mg 6 mg/50 mg 12 mg/25 mg 12 mg/50 mg
olanzapine 3 6 6 12 12
fluoxetine base
 equivalent
25 25 50 25 50

Each capsule also contains pregelatinized starch, gelatin, dimethicone, titanium dioxide, sodium lauryl sulfate, edible black ink, red iron oxide, yellow iron oxide, and/or black iron oxide.

Symbyax Package Photos

About the Author

Truman Lewis
Truman has been a bureau chief and correspondent in D.C., Los Angeles, Phoenix and elsewhere, reporting for radio, television, print and news services, for more than 30 years. Most recently, he has reported extensively on health and consumer issues for ConsumerAffairs.com and FairfaxNews.com.