|Labeler Name||Eli Lilly and Company|
|Dosage & Substance||capsule, delayed release fluoxetine hydrochloride|
|Date First Marketed||March 16, 2001|
PROZAC® is indicated for the treatment of:
- Acute and maintenance treatment of Major Depressive Disorder.
- Acute and maintenance treatment of obsessions and compulsions in patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
- Acute and maintenance treatment of binge-eating and vomiting behaviors in patients with moderate to severe Bulimia Nervosa.
- Acute treatment of Panic Disorder, with or without agoraphobia
PROZAC and Olanzapine in Combination is indicated for the treatment of:
- Acute treatment of depressive episodes associated with Bipolar I Disorder.
- Treatment resistant depression (Major Depressive Disorder in patients, who do not respond to 2 separate trials of different antidepressants of adequate dose and duration in the current episode).
PROZAC monotherapy is not indicated for the treatment of depressive episodes associated with Bipolar I Disorder or the treatment of treatment resistant depression.
4.1 Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)
The use of MAOIs intended to treat psychiatric disorders with PROZAC or within 5 weeks of stopping treatment with PROZAC is contraindicated because of an increased risk of serotonin syndrome. The use of PROZAC within 14 days of stopping an MAOI intended to treat psychiatric disorders is also contraindicated.
Starting PROZAC in a patient who is being treated with MAOIs such as linezolid or intravenous methylene blue is also contraindicated because of an increased risk of serotonin syndrome.
4.2 Other Contraindications
The use of PROZAC is contraindicated with the following:
Pimozide and thioridazine prolong the QT interval. PROZAC can increase the levels of pimozide and thioridazine through inhibition of CYP2D6. PROZAC can also prolong the QT interval.
The following adverse reactions are discussed in more detail in other sections of the labeling:
- Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults
- Serotonin Syndrome
- Allergic Reactions and Rash
- Screening Patients for Bipolar Disorder and Monitoring for Mania/Hypomania
- Altered Appetite and Weight
- Abnormal Bleeding
- Angle-Closure Glaucoma
- Anxiety and Insomnia
- QT Prolongation
- Potential for Cognitive and Motor Impairment
- Discontinuation Adverse Reactions
6.1 Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect or predict the rates observed in practice.
Multiple doses of PROZAC have been administered to 10,782 patients with various diagnoses in US clinical trials. In addition, there have been 425 patients administered PROZAC in panic clinical trials. The stated frequencies represent the proportion of individuals who experienced, at least once, a treatment-emergent adverse reaction of the type listed. A reaction was considered treatment-emergent if it occurred for the first time or worsened while receiving therapy following baseline evaluation.
— Table 3 enumerates the most common treatment-emergent adverse reactions associated with the use of PROZAC (incidence of at least 5% for PROZAC and at least twice that for placebo within at least 1 of the indications) for the treatment of Major Depressive Disorder, OCD, and bulimia in US controlled clinical trials and Panic Disorder in US plus non-US controlled trials. Table 5 enumerates treatment-emergent adverse reactions that occurred in 2% or more patients treated with PROZAC and with incidence greater than placebo who participated in US Major Depressive Disorder, OCD, and bulimia controlled clinical trials and US plus non-US Panic Disorder controlled clinical trials. Table 4 provides combined data for the pool of studies that are provided separately by indication in Table 3.
1 Incidence less than 1%.
2 Includes US data for Major Depressive Disorder, OCD, Bulimia, and Panic Disorder clinical trials, plus non-US data for Panic Disorder clinical trials.
3 Denominator used was for males only (N=690 PROZAC Major Depressive Disorder; N=410 placebo Major Depressive Disorder; N=116 PROZAC OCD; N=43 placebo OCD; N=14 PROZAC bulimia; N=1 placebo bulimia; N=162 PROZAC panic; N=121 placebo panic).
|Percentage of Patients Reporting Event|
|Major Depressive Disorder||OCD||Bulimia||Panic Disorder|
|Body System/ |
|Body as a Whole|
|Skin and Appendages|
1 Incidence less than 1%.
2 Includes US data for Major Depressive Disorder, OCD, Bulimia, and Panic Disorder clinical trials, plus non-US data for Panic Disorder clinical trials.
|Percentage of Patients Reporting Event|
|Major Depressive Disorder, OCD, Bulimia, |
and Panic Disorder Combined
|Body System/ |
|Body as a Whole|
|Metabolic and Nutritional |
|Skin and Appendages|
— Table 5 lists the adverse reactions associated with discontinuation of PROZAC treatment (incidence at least twice that for placebo and at least 1% for PROZAC in clinical trials collecting only a primary reaction associated with discontinuation) in Major Depressive Disorder, OCD, bulimia, and Panic Disorder clinical trials, plus non-US Panic Disorder clinical trials.
1 Includes US Major Depressive Disorder, OCD, Bulimia, and Panic Disorder clinical trials, plus non-US Panic Disorder clinical trials.
|Major Depressive Disorder, OCD, Bulimia, and Panic Disorder Combined |
|Major Depressive Disorder |
|Panic Disorder |
|Anxiety (1%)||—||Anxiety (2%)||—||Anxiety (2%)|
|—||Nervousness (1%)||—||—||Nervousness (1%)|
— Treatment-emergent adverse reactions were collected in 322 pediatric patients (180 fluoxetine-treated, 142 placebo-treated). The overall profile of adverse reactions was generally similar to that seen in adult studies, as shown in Tables 4 and 5. However, the following adverse reactions (excluding those which appear in the body or footnotes of Tables 4 and 5 and those for which the COSTART terms were uninformative or misleading) were reported at an incidence of at least 2% for fluoxetine and greater than placebo: thirst, hyperkinesia, agitation, personality disorder, epistaxis, urinary frequency, and menorrhagia.
The most common adverse reaction (incidence at least 1% for fluoxetine and greater than placebo) associated with discontinuation in 3 pediatric placebo-controlled trials (N=418 randomized; 228 fluoxetine-treated; 190 placebo-treated) was mania/hypomania (1.8% for fluoxetine-treated, 0% for placebo-treated). In these clinical trials, only a primary reaction associated with discontinuation was collected.
— Treatment-emergent adverse reactions in clinical trials with PROZAC Weekly were similar to the adverse reactions reported by patients in clinical trials with PROZAC daily. In a placebo-controlled clinical trial, more patients taking PROZAC Weekly reported diarrhea than patients taking placebo (10% versus 3%, respectively) or taking PROZAC 20 mg daily (10% versus 5%, respectively).
— Although changes in sexual desire, sexual performance, and sexual satisfaction often occur as manifestations of a psychiatric disorder, they may also be a consequence of pharmacologic treatment. In particular, some evidence suggests that SSRIs can cause such untoward sexual experiences. Reliable estimates of the incidence and severity of untoward experiences involving sexual desire, performance, and satisfaction are difficult to obtain, however, in part because patients and physicians may be reluctant to discuss them. Accordingly, estimates of the incidence of untoward sexual experience and performance, cited in product labeling, are likely to underestimate their actual incidence. In patients enrolled in US Major Depressive Disorder, OCD, and bulimia placebo-controlled clinical trials, decreased libido was the only sexual side effect reported by at least 2% of patients taking fluoxetine (4% fluoxetine, <1% placebo). There have been spontaneous reports in women taking fluoxetine of orgasmic dysfunction, including anorgasmia.
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies examining sexual dysfunction with fluoxetine treatment.
Symptoms of sexual dysfunction occasionally persist after discontinuation of fluoxetine treatment.
Priapism has been reported with all SSRIs.
While it is difficult to know the precise risk of sexual dysfunction associated with the use of SSRIs, physicians should routinely inquire about such possible side effects.
6.2 Other Reactions
Following is a list of treatment-emergent adverse reactions reported by patients treated with fluoxetine in clinical trials. This listing is not intended to include reactions (1) already listed in previous tables or elsewhere in labeling, (2) for which a drug cause was remote, (3) which were so general as to be uninformative, (4) which were not considered to have significant clinical implications, or (5) which occurred at a rate equal to or less than placebo.
Reactions are classified by body system using the following definitions: frequent adverse reactions are those occurring in at least 1/100 patients; infrequent adverse reactions are those occurring in 1/100 to 1/1000 patients; rare reactions are those occurring in fewer than 1/1000 patients.
Body as a Whole — chills; suicide attempt; acute abdominal syndrome, photosensitivity reaction.
Cardiovascular System — palpitation; arrhythmia, hypotension1.
Digestive System — dysphagia, gastritis, gastroenteritis, melena, stomach ulcer; bloody diarrhea, duodenal ulcer, esophageal ulcer, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, hematemesis, hepatitis, peptic ulcer, stomach ulcer hemorrhage.
Hemic and Lymphatic System — ecchymosis; petechia, purpura.
Investigations — QT interval prolongation (QTcF ≥450 msec)3.
Nervous System — emotional lability; akathisia, ataxia, balance disorder1, bruxism1, buccoglossal syndrome, depersonalization, euphoria, hypertonia, libido increased, myoclonus, paranoid reaction; delusions.
Respiratory System — larynx edema.
Skin and Appendages — alopecia; purpuric rash.
Special Senses — taste perversion; mydriasis.
Urogenital System — micturition disorder; Infrequent: dysuria, gynecological bleeding2.
1 MedDRA dictionary term from integrated database of placebo controlled trials of 15870 patients, of which 9673 patients received fluoxetine.
2 Group term that includes individual MedDRA terms: cervix hemorrhage uterine, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, genital hemorrhage, menometrorrhagia, menorrhagia, metrorrhagia, polymenorrhea, postmenopausal hemorrhage, uterine hemorrhage, vaginal hemorrhage. Adjusted for gender.
3 QT prolongation data are based on routine ECG measurements in clinical trials.
6.3 Postmarketing Experience
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of PROZAC. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is difficult to reliably estimate their frequency or evaluate a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Voluntary reports of adverse reactions temporally associated with PROZAC that have been received since market introduction and that may have no causal relationship with the drug include the following: aplastic anemia, atrial fibrillation1, cataract, cerebrovascular accident1, cholestatic jaundice, dyskinesia (including, for example, a case of buccal-lingual-masticatory syndrome with involuntary tongue protrusion reported to develop in a 77-year-old female after 5 weeks of fluoxetine therapy and which completely resolved over the next few months following drug discontinuation), eosinophilic pneumonia1, epidermal necrolysis, erythema multiforme, erythema nodosum, exfoliative dermatitis, galactorrhea, gynecomastia, heart arrest1, hepatic failure/necrosis, hyperprolactinemia, hypoglycemia, immune-related hemolytic anemia, kidney failure, memory impairment, movement disorders developing in patients with risk factors including drugs associated with such reactions and worsening of pre-existing movement disorders, optic neuritis, pancreatitis1, pancytopenia, pulmonary embolism, pulmonary hypertension, QT prolongation, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, thrombocytopenia1, thrombocytopenic purpura, ventricular tachycardia (including Torsades de Pointes–type arrhythmias), vaginal bleeding, and violent behaviors1.
1 These terms represent serious adverse events, but do not meet the definition for adverse drug reactions. They are included here because of their seriousness.
5.1 Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults
Patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), both adult and pediatric, may experience worsening of their depression and/or the emergence of suicidal ideation and behavior (suicidality) or unusual changes in behavior, whether or not they are taking antidepressant medications, and this risk may persist until significant remission occurs. Suicide is a known risk of depression and certain other psychiatric disorders, and these disorders themselves are the strongest predictors of suicide. There has been a long-standing concern, however, that antidepressants may have a role in inducing worsening of depression and the emergence of suicidality in certain patients during the early phases of treatment. Pooled analyses of short-term placebo-controlled trials of antidepressant drugs (SSRIs and others) showed that these drugs increase the risk of suicidal thinking and behavior (suicidality) in children, adolescents, and young adults (ages 18-24) with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and other psychiatric disorders. Short-term studies did not show an increase in the risk of suicidality with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults beyond age 24; there was a reduction with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults aged 65 and older.
The pooled analyses of placebo-controlled trials in children and adolescents with MDD, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), or other psychiatric disorders included a total of 24 short-term trials of 9 antidepressant drugs in over 4400 patients. The pooled analyses of placebo-controlled trials in adults with MDD or other psychiatric disorders included a total of 295 short-term trials (median duration of 2 months) of 11 antidepressant drugs in over 77,000 patients. There was considerable variation in risk of suicidality among drugs, but a tendency toward an increase in the younger patients for almost all drugs studied. There were differences in absolute risk of suicidality across the different indications, with the highest incidence in MDD. The risk differences (drug versus placebo), however, were relatively stable within age strata and across indications. These risk differences (drug-placebo difference in the number of cases of suicidality per 1000 patients treated) are provided in Table 2.
|Age Range||Drug-Placebo Difference in Number of Cases of Suicidality per 1000 Patients Treated|
|Increases Compared to Placebo|
|<18||14 additional cases|
|18–24||5 additional cases|
|Decreases Compared to Placebo|
|25–64||1 fewer case|
|≥65||6 fewer cases|
No suicides occurred in any of the pediatric trials. There were suicides in the adult trials, but the number was not sufficient to reach any conclusion about drug effect on suicide.
It is unknown whether the suicidality risk extends to longer-term use, i.e., beyond several months. However, there is substantial evidence from placebo-controlled maintenance trials in adults with depression that the use of antidepressants can delay the recurrence of depression.
All patients being treated with antidepressants for any indication should be monitored appropriately and observed closely for clinical worsening, suicidality, and unusual changes in behavior, especially during the initial few months of a course of drug therapy, or at times of dose changes, either increases or decreases.
The following symptoms, anxiety, agitation, panic attacks, insomnia, irritability, hostility, aggressiveness, impulsivity, akathisia (psychomotor restlessness), hypomania, and mania, have been reported in adult and pediatric patients being treated with antidepressants for Major Depressive Disorder as well as for other indications, both psychiatric and nonpsychiatric. Although a causal link between the emergence of such symptoms and either the worsening of depression and/or the emergence of suicidal impulses has not been established, there is concern that such symptoms may represent precursors to emerging suicidality.
Consideration should be given to changing the therapeutic regimen, including possibly discontinuing the medication, in patients whose depression is persistently worse, or who are experiencing emergent suicidality or symptoms that might be precursors to worsening depression or suicidality, especially if these symptoms are severe, abrupt in onset, or were not part of the patient’s presenting symptoms.
If the decision has been made to discontinue treatment, medication should be tapered, as rapidly as is feasible, but with recognition that abrupt discontinuation can be associated with certain symptoms.
Families and caregivers of patients being treated with antidepressants for Major Depressive Disorder or other indications, both psychiatric and nonpsychiatric, should be alerted about the need to monitor patients for the emergence of agitation, irritability, unusual changes in behavior, and the other symptoms described above, as well as the emergence of suicidality, and to report such symptoms immediately to health care providers. Such monitoring should include daily observation by families and caregivers. Prescriptions for PROZAC should be written for the smallest quantity of capsules consistent with good patient management, in order to reduce the risk of overdose.
It should be noted that PROZAC is approved in the pediatric population for Major Depressive Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder; and PROZAC in combination with olanzapine for the acute treatment of depressive episodes associated with Bipolar I Disorder.
5.2 Serotonin Syndrome
Serotonin syndrome symptoms may include mental status changes (e.g., agitation, hallucinations, delirium, and coma), autonomic instability (e.g., tachycardia, labile blood pressure, dizziness, diaphoresis, flushing, hyperthermia), neuromuscular symptoms (e.g., tremor, rigidity, myoclonus, hyperreflexia, incoordination), seizures, and/or gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea). Patients should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome.
The concomitant use of PROZAC with MAOIs intended to treat psychiatric disorders is contraindicated. PROZAC should also not be started in a patient who is being treated with MAOIs such as linezolid or intravenous methylene blue. All reports with methylene blue that provided information on the route of administration involved intravenous administration in the dose range of 1 mg/kg to 8 mg/kg. No reports involved the administration of methylene blue by other routes (such as oral tablets or local tissue injection) or at lower doses. There may be circumstances when it is necessary to initiate treatment with an MAOI such as linezolid or intravenous methylene blue in a patient taking PROZAC. PROZAC should be discontinued before initiating treatment with the MAOI.
Treatment with PROZAC and any concomitant serotonergic agents, should be discontinued immediately if the above events occur and supportive symptomatic treatment should be initiated.
5.3 Allergic Reactions and Rash
In US fluoxetine clinical trials, 7% of 10,782 patients developed various types of rashes and/or urticaria. Among the cases of rash and/or urticaria reported in premarketing clinical trials, almost a third were withdrawn from treatment because of the rash and/or systemic signs or symptoms associated with the rash. Clinical findings reported in association with rash include fever, leukocytosis, arthralgias, edema, carpal tunnel syndrome, respiratory distress, lymphadenopathy, proteinuria, and mild transaminase elevation. Most patients improved promptly with discontinuation of fluoxetine and/or adjunctive treatment with antihistamines or steroids, and all patients experiencing these reactions were reported to recover completely.
In premarketing clinical trials, 2 patients are known to have developed a serious cutaneous systemic illness. In neither patient was there an unequivocal diagnosis, but one was considered to have a leukocytoclastic vasculitis, and the other, a severe desquamating syndrome that was considered variously to be a vasculitis or erythema multiforme. Other patients have had systemic syndromes suggestive of serum sickness.
Since the introduction of PROZAC, systemic reactions, possibly related to vasculitis and including lupus-like syndrome, have developed in patients with rash. Although these reactions are rare, they may be serious, involving the lung, kidney, or liver. Death has been reported to occur in association with these systemic reactions.
Anaphylactoid reactions, including bronchospasm, angioedema, laryngospasm, and urticaria alone and in combination, have been reported.
Pulmonary reactions, including inflammatory processes of varying histopathology and/or fibrosis, have been reported rarely. These reactions have occurred with dyspnea as the only preceding symptom.
Whether these systemic reactions and rash have a common underlying cause or are due to different etiologies or pathogenic processes is not known. Furthermore, a specific underlying immunologic basis for these reactions has not been identified. Upon the appearance of rash or of other possibly allergic phenomena for which an alternative etiology cannot be identified, PROZAC should be discontinued.
5.4 Screening Patients for Bipolar Disorder and Monitoring for Mania/Hypomania
A major depressive episode may be the initial presentation of Bipolar Disorder. It is generally believed (though not established in controlled trials) that treating such an episode with an antidepressant alone may increase the likelihood of precipitation of a mixed/manic episode in patients at risk for Bipolar Disorder. Whether any of the symptoms described for clinical worsening and suicide risk represent such a conversion is unknown. However, prior to initiating treatment with an antidepressant, patients with depressive symptoms should be adequately screened to determine if they are at risk for Bipolar Disorder; such screening should include a detailed psychiatric history, including a family history of suicide, Bipolar Disorder, and depression. It should be noted that PROZAC and olanzapine in combination is approved for the acute treatment of depressive episodes associated with Bipolar I Disorder. PROZAC monotherapy is not indicated for the treatment of depressive episodes associated with Bipolar I Disorder.
In US placebo-controlled clinical trials for Major Depressive Disorder, mania/hypomania was reported in 0.1% of patients treated with PROZAC and 0.1% of patients treated with placebo. Activation of mania/hypomania has also been reported in a small proportion of patients with Major Affective Disorder treated with other marketed drugs effective in the treatment of Major Depressive Disorder.
In US placebo-controlled clinical trials for OCD, mania/hypomania was reported in 0.8% of patients treated with PROZAC and no patients treated with placebo. No patients reported mania/hypomania in US placebo-controlled clinical trials for bulimia. In US PROZAC clinical trials, 0.7% of 10,782 patients reported mania/hypomania.
In US placebo-controlled clinical trials for Major Depressive Disorder, convulsions (or reactions described as possibly having been seizures) were reported in 0.1% of patients treated with PROZAC and 0.2% of patients treated with placebo. No patients reported convulsions in US placebo-controlled clinical trials for either OCD or bulimia. In US PROZAC clinical trials, 0.2% of 10,782 patients reported convulsions. The percentage appears to be similar to that associated with other marketed drugs effective in the treatment of Major Depressive Disorder. PROZAC should be introduced with care in patients with a history of seizures.
5.6 Altered Appetite and Weight
Significant weight loss, especially in underweight depressed or bulimic patients, may be an undesirable result of treatment with PROZAC.
In US placebo-controlled clinical trials for Major Depressive Disorder, 11% of patients treated with PROZAC and 2% of patients treated with placebo reported anorexia (decreased appetite). Weight loss was reported in 1.4% of patients treated with PROZAC and in 0.5% of patients treated with placebo. However, only rarely have patients discontinued treatment with PROZAC because of anorexia or weight loss.
In US placebo-controlled clinical trials for OCD, 17% of patients treated with PROZAC and 10% of patients treated with placebo reported anorexia (decreased appetite). One patient discontinued treatment with PROZAC because of anorexia.
In US placebo-controlled clinical trials for Bulimia Nervosa, 8% of patients treated with PROZAC 60 mg and 4% of patients treated with placebo reported anorexia (decreased appetite). Patients treated with PROZAC 60 mg on average lost 0.45 kg compared with a gain of 0.16 kg by patients treated with placebo in the 16-week double-blind trial. Weight change should be monitored during therapy.
5.7 Abnormal Bleeding
SNRIs and SSRIs, including fluoxetine, may increase the risk of bleeding reactions. Concomitant use of aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, warfarin, and other anti-coagulants may add to this risk. Case reports and epidemiological studies (case-control and cohort design) have demonstrated an association between use of drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and the occurrence of gastrointestinal bleeding. Bleeding reactions related to SNRIs and SSRIs use have ranged from ecchymoses, hematomas, epistaxis, and petechiae to life-threatening hemorrhages. Patients should be cautioned about the risk of bleeding associated with the concomitant use of fluoxetine and NSAIDs, aspirin, warfarin, or other drugs that affect coagulation.
5.8 Angle-Closure Glaucoma
— The pupillary dilation that occurs following use of many antidepressant drugs including Prozac may trigger an angle closure attack in a patient with anatomically narrow angles who does not have a patent iridectomy.
Hyponatremia has been reported during treatment with SNRIs and SSRIs, including PROZAC. In many cases, this hyponatremia appears to be the result of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Cases with serum sodium lower than 110 mmol/L have been reported and appeared to be reversible when PROZAC was discontinued. Elderly patients may be at greater risk of developing hyponatremia with SNRIs and SSRIs. Also, patients taking diuretics or who are otherwise volume depleted may be at greater risk. Discontinuation of PROZAC should be considered in patients with symptomatic hyponatremia and appropriate medical intervention should be instituted.
Signs and symptoms of hyponatremia include headache, difficulty concentrating, memory impairment, confusion, weakness, and unsteadiness, which may lead to falls. More severe and/or acute cases have been associated with hallucination, syncope, seizure, coma, respiratory arrest, and death.
5.10 Anxiety and Insomnia
In US placebo-controlled clinical trials for Major Depressive Disorder, 12% to 16% of patients treated with PROZAC and 7% to 9% of patients treated with placebo reported anxiety, nervousness, or insomnia.
In US placebo-controlled clinical trials for OCD, insomnia was reported in 28% of patients treated with PROZAC and in 22% of patients treated with placebo. Anxiety was reported in 14% of patients treated with PROZAC and in 7% of patients treated with placebo.
In US placebo-controlled clinical trials for Bulimia Nervosa, insomnia was reported in 33% of patients treated with PROZAC 60 mg, and 13% of patients treated with placebo. Anxiety and nervousness were reported, respectively, in 15% and 11% of patients treated with PROZAC 60 mg and in 9% and 5% of patients treated with placebo.
Among the most common adverse reactions associated with discontinuation (incidence at least twice that for placebo and at least 1% for PROZAC in clinical trials collecting only a primary reaction associated with discontinuation) in US placebo-controlled fluoxetine clinical trials were anxiety (2% in OCD), insomnia (1% in combined indications and 2% in bulimia), and nervousness (1% in Major Depressive Disorder).
5.11 QT Prolongation
Post-marketing cases of QT interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmia including Torsades de Pointes have been reported in patients treated with PROZAC. PROZAC should be used with caution in patients with congenital long QT syndrome; a previous history of QT prolongation; a family history of long QT syndrome or sudden cardiac death; and other conditions that predispose to QT prolongation and ventricular arrhythmia. Such conditions include concomitant use of drugs that prolong the QT interval; hypokalemia or hypomagnesemia; recent myocardial infarction, uncompensated heart failure, bradyarrhythmias, and other significant arrhythmias; and conditions that predispose to increased fluoxetine exposure (overdose, hepatic impairment, use of CYP2D6 inhibitors, CYP2D6 poor metabolizer status, or use of other highly protein-bound drugs). PROZAC is primarily metabolized by CYP2D6.
Pimozide and thioridazine are contraindicated for use with PROZAC. Avoid the concomitant use of drugs known to prolong the QT interval. These include specific antipsychotics (e.g., ziprasidone, iloperidone, chlorpromazine, mesoridazine, droperidol,); specific antibiotics (e.g., erythromycin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, sparfloxacin); Class 1A antiarrhythmic medications (e.g., quinidine, procainamide); Class III antiarrhythmics (e.g., amiodarone, sotalol); and others (e.g., pentamidine, levomethadyl acetate, methadone, halofantrine, mefloquine, dolasetron mesylate, probucol or tacrolimus).
Consider ECG assessment and periodic ECG monitoring if initiating treatment with PROZAC in patients with risk factors for QT prolongation and ventricular arrhythmia. Consider discontinuing PROZAC and obtaining a cardiac evaluation if patients develop signs or symptoms consistent with ventricular arrhythmia.
5.12 Use in Patients with Concomitant Illness
Clinical experience with PROZAC in patients with concomitant systemic illness is limited. Caution is advisable in using PROZAC in patients with diseases or conditions that could affect metabolism or hemodynamic responses.
— Fluoxetine has not been evaluated or used to any appreciable extent in patients with a recent history of myocardial infarction or unstable heart disease. Patients with these diagnoses were systematically excluded from clinical studies during the product’s premarket testing. However, the electrocardiograms of 312 patients who received PROZAC in double-blind trials were retrospectively evaluated; no conduction abnormalities that resulted in heart block were observed. The mean heart rate was reduced by approximately 3 beats/min.
— In patients with diabetes, PROZAC may alter glycemic control. Hypoglycemia has occurred during therapy with PROZAC, and hyperglycemia has developed following discontinuation of the drug. As is true with many other types of medication when taken concurrently by patients with diabetes, insulin and/or oral hypoglycemic, dosage may need to be adjusted when therapy with PROZAC is instituted or discontinued.
5.13 Potential for Cognitive and Motor Impairment
As with any CNS-active drug, PROZAC has the potential to impair judgment, thinking, or motor skills. Patients should be cautioned about operating hazardous machinery, including automobiles, until they are reasonably certain that the drug treatment does not affect them adversely.
5.14 Long Elimination Half-Life
Because of the long elimination half-lives of the parent drug and its major active metabolite, changes in dose will not be fully reflected in plasma for several weeks, affecting both strategies for titration to final dose and withdrawal from treatment. This is of potential consequence when drug discontinuation is required or when drugs are prescribed that might interact with fluoxetine and norfluoxetine following the discontinuation of fluoxetine.
5.15 Discontinuation Adverse Reactions
During marketing of PROZAC, SNRIs, and SSRIs, there have been spontaneous reports of adverse reactions occurring upon discontinuation of these drugs, particularly when abrupt, including the following: dysphoric mood, irritability, agitation, dizziness, sensory disturbances (e.g., paresthesias such as electric shock sensations), anxiety, confusion, headache, lethargy, emotional lability, insomnia, and hypomania. While these reactions are generally self-limiting, there have been reports of serious discontinuation symptoms. Patients should be monitored for these symptoms when discontinuing treatment with PROZAC. A gradual reduction in the dose rather than abrupt cessation is recommended whenever possible. If intolerable symptoms occur following a decrease in the dose or upon discontinuation of treatment, then resuming the previously prescribed dose may be considered. Subsequently, the physician may continue decreasing the dose but at a more gradual rate. Plasma fluoxetine and norfluoxetine concentration decrease gradually at the conclusion of therapy which may minimize the risk of discontinuation symptoms with this drug.
5.16 PROZAC and Olanzapine in Combination
When using PROZAC and olanzapine in combination, also refer to the Warnings and Precautions section of the package insert for Symbyax.
(Fluoxetine Delayed-Release Capsules)
Pulvule® and Weekly™ Capsule
Read the Medication Guide that comes with PROZAC before you start taking it and each time you get a refill. There may be new information. This Medication Guide does not take the place of talking to your healthcare provider about your medical condition or treatment. Talk with your healthcare provider if there is something you do not understand or want to learn more about.
What is the most important information I should know about PROZAC?
PROZAC and other antidepressant medicines may cause serious side effects, including:
1. Suicidal thoughts or actions:
- PROZAC and other antidepressant medicines may increase suicidal thoughts or actions in some children, teenagers, or young adults within the first few months of treatment or when the dose is changed.
- Depression or other serious mental illnesses are the most important causes of suicidal thoughts or actions.
- Watch for these changes and call your healthcare provider right away if you notice:
- New or sudden changes in mood, behavior, actions, thoughts, or feelings, especially if severe.
- Pay particular attention to such changes when PROZAC is started or when the dose is changed.
Keep all follow-up visits with your healthcare provider and call between visits if you are worried about symptoms.
Call your healthcare provider right away if you have any of the following symptoms, or call 911 if an emergency, especially if they are new, worse, or worry you:
- attempts to commit suicide
- acting on dangerous impulses
- acting aggressive or violent
- thoughts about suicide or dying
- new or worse depression
- new or worse anxiety or panic attacks
- feeling agitated, restless, angry or irritable
- trouble sleeping
- an increase in activity or talking more than what is normal for you
- other unusual changes in behavior or mood
Call your healthcare provider right away if you have any of the following symptoms, or call 911 if an emergency. PROZAC may be associated with these serious side effects:
2. Serotonin Syndrome. This condition can be life-threatening and may include:
- agitation, hallucinations, coma or other changes in mental status
- coordination problems or muscle twitching (overactive reflexes)
- racing heartbeat, high or low blood pressure
- sweating or fever
- nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea
- muscle rigidity
3. Severe allergic reactions:
- trouble breathing
- swelling of the face, tongue, eyes or mouth
- rash, itchy welts (hives) or blisters, alone or with fever or joint pain
4. Abnormal bleeding: PROZAC and other antidepressant medicines may increase your risk of bleeding or bruising, especially if you take the blood thinner warfarin (Coumadin®, Jantoven®), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs, like ibuprofen or naproxen), or aspirin.
5. Visual problems:
- eye pain
- changes in vision
- swelling or redness in or around the eye
Only some people are at risk for these problems. You may want to undergo an eye examination to see if you are at risk and receive preventative treatment if you are.
6. Seizures or convulsions
7. Manic episodes:
- greatly increased energy
- severe trouble sleeping
- racing thoughts
- reckless behavior
- unusually grand ideas
- excessive happiness or irritability
- talking more or faster than usual
8. Changes in appetite or weight. Children and adolescents should have height and weight monitored during treatment.
9. Low salt (sodium) levels in the blood. Elderly people may be at greater risk for this. Symptoms may include:
- weakness or feeling unsteady
- confusion, problems concentrating or thinking or memory problems
10. Changes in the electrical activity of your heart (QT prolongation and ventricular arrhythmia including Torsades de Pointes). This condition can be life threatening. The symptoms may include:
- fast, slow, or irregular heartbeat
- shortness of breath
- dizziness or fainting
Do not stop PROZAC without first talking to your healthcare provider. Stopping PROZAC too quickly may cause serious symptoms including:
- anxiety, irritability, high or low mood, feeling restless or changes in sleep habits
- headache, sweating, nausea, dizziness
- electric shock-like sensations, shaking, confusion
What is PROZAC?
PROZAC is a prescription medicine used to treat depression. It is important to talk with your healthcare provider about the risks of treating depression and also the risks of not treating it. You should discuss all treatment choices with your healthcare provider.
PROZAC is used to treat:
- Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)
- Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
- Bulimia Nervosa*
- Panic Disorder*
- Depressive episodes associated with Bipolar I Disorder, taken with olanzapine (Zyprexa)
- Treatment Resistant Depression (depression that has not gotten better with at least 2 other treatments), taken with olanzapine (Zyprexa)*
*Not approved for use in children
Talk to your healthcare provider if you do not think that your condition is getting better with PROZAC treatment.
Who should not take PROZAC?
Do not take PROZAC if you:
- are allergic to fluoxetine hydrochloride or any of the ingredients in PROZAC. See the end of this Medication Guide for a complete list of ingredients in PROZAC.
- take a Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor (MAOI). Ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist if you are not sure if you take an MAOI, including the antibiotic linezolid.
- Do not take an MAOI within 5 weeks of stopping PROZAC unless directed to do so by your physician.
- Do not start PROZAC if you stopped taking an MAOI in the last 2 weeks unless directed to do so by your physician.
People who take PROZAC close in time to an MAOI may have serious or even life-threatening side effects. Get medical help right away if you have any of these symptoms:
- high fever
- uncontrolled muscle spasms
- stiff muscles
- rapid changes in heart rate or blood pressure
- loss of consciousness (pass out)
- take Mellaril® (thioridazine). Do not take Mellaril® within 5 weeks of stopping PROZAC because this can cause serious heart rhythm problems or sudden death.
- take the antipsychotic medicine pimozide (Orap®) because this can cause serious heart problems.
What should I tell my healthcare provider before taking PROZAC? Ask if you are not sure.
Before starting PROZAC, tell your healthcare provider if you:
- Are taking certain drugs or treatments such as:
- Triptans used to treat migraine headache
- Medicines used to treat mood, anxiety, psychotic or thought disorders, including tricyclics, lithium, buspirone, SSRIs, SNRIs, MAOIs or antipsychotics
- Tramadol and fentanyl
- Over-the-counter supplements such as tryptophan or St. John’s Wort
- Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
- have liver problems
- have kidney problems
- have heart problems
- have or had seizures or convulsions
- have bipolar disorder or mania
- have low sodium levels in your blood
- have a history of a stroke
- have high blood pressure
- have or had bleeding problems
- are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. It is not known if PROZAC will harm your unborn baby. Talk to your healthcare provider about the benefits and risks of treating depression during pregnancy.
- are breast-feeding or plan to breast-feed. Some PROZAC may pass into your breast milk. Talk to your healthcare provider about the best way to feed your baby while taking PROZAC.
Tell your healthcare provider about all the medicines that you take, including prescription and non-prescription medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements. PROZAC and some medicines may interact with each other, may not work as well, or may cause serious side effects.
Your healthcare provider or pharmacist can tell you if it is safe to take PROZAC with your other medicines. Do not start or stop any medicine while taking PROZAC without talking to your healthcare provider first.
|If you take PROZAC, you should not take any other medicines that contain fluoxetine hydrochloride including: |
How should I take PROZAC?
- Take PROZAC exactly as prescribed. Your healthcare provider may need to change the dose of PROZAC until it is the right dose for you.
- PROZAC may be taken with or without food.
- If you miss a dose of PROZAC, take the missed dose as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for the next dose, skip the missed dose and take your next dose at the regular time. Do not take two doses of PROZAC at the same time.
- If you take too much PROZAC, call your healthcare provider or poison control center right away, or get emergency treatment.
What should I avoid while taking PROZAC?
PROZAC can cause sleepiness or may affect your ability to make decisions, think clearly, or react quickly. You should not drive, operate heavy machinery, or do other dangerous activities until you know how PROZAC affects you. Do not drink alcohol while using PROZAC.
What are the possible side effects of PROZAC?
PROZAC may cause serious side effects, including:
- See “What is the most important information I should know about PROZAC?”
- Problems with blood sugar control. People who have diabetes and take PROZAC may have problems with low blood sugar while taking PROZAC. High blood sugar can happen when PROZAC is stopped. Your healthcare provider may need to change the dose of your diabetes medicines when you start or stop taking PROZAC.
- Feeling anxious or trouble sleeping
Common possible side effects in people who take PROZAC include:
- unusual dreams
- sexual problems
- loss of appetite, diarrhea, indigestion, nausea or vomiting, weakness, or dry mouth
- flu symptoms
- feeling tired or fatigued
- change in sleep habits
- sinus infection or sore throat
- tremor or shaking
- feeling anxious or nervous
- hot flashes
Other side effects in children and adolescents include:
- increased thirst
- abnormal increase in muscle movement or agitation
- nose bleed
- urinating more often
- heavy menstrual periods
- possible slowed growth rate and weight change. Your child’s height and weight should be monitored during treatment with PROZAC.
Tell your healthcare provider if you have any side effect that bothers you or that does not go away. These are not all the possible side effects of PROZAC. For more information, ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist.
CALL YOUR DOCTOR FOR MEDICAL ADVICE ABOUT SIDE EFFECTS. YOU MAY REPORT SIDE EFFECTS TO THE FDA AT 1-800-FDA-1088.
How should I store PROZAC?
- Store PROZAC at room temperature between 59°F and 86°F (15°C to 30°C).
- Keep PROZAC away from light.
- Keep PROZAC bottle closed tightly.
Keep PROZAC and all medicines out of the reach of children.
General information about PROZAC
Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in a Medication Guide. Do not use PROZAC for a condition for which it was not prescribed. Do not give PROZAC to other people, even if they have the same condition. It may harm them.
This Medication Guide summarizes the most important information about PROZAC. If you would like more information, talk with your healthcare provider. You may ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist for information about PROZAC that is written for healthcare professionals.
For more information about PROZAC call 1-800-Lilly-Rx (1-800-545-5979).
What are the ingredients in PROZAC?
Active ingredient: fluoxetine hydrochloride
- PROZAC pulvules: starch, gelatin, silicone, titanium dioxide, iron oxide, and other inactive ingredients. The 10 and 20 mg Pulvules also contain FD&C Blue No. 1, and the 40 mg Pulvules also contains FD&C Blue No. 1 and FD&C Yellow No. 6.
- PROZAC Weekly™ capsules: D&C Yellow No. 10, FD&C Blue No. 2, gelatin, hypromellose, hypromellose acetate succinate, sodium lauryl sulfate, sucrose, sugar spheres, talc, titanium oxide, triethyl citrate, and other inactive ingredients.
Medication Guide revised October 24, 2016
Marketed by: Lilly USA, LLC
Indianapolis, IN 46285, USA
Copyright © 2009, 2016, Eli Lilly and Company. All rights reserved.
10.1 Human Experience
Worldwide exposure to fluoxetine hydrochloride is estimated to be over 38 million patients (circa 1999). Of the 1578 cases of overdose involving fluoxetine hydrochloride, alone or with other drugs, reported from this population, there were 195 deaths.
Among 633 adult patients who overdosed on fluoxetine hydrochloride alone, 34 resulted in a fatal outcome, 378 completely recovered, and 15 patients experienced sequelae after overdosage, including abnormal accommodation, abnormal gait, confusion, unresponsiveness, nervousness, pulmonary dysfunction, vertigo, tremor, elevated blood pressure, impotence, movement disorder, and hypomania. The remaining 206 patients had an unknown outcome. The most common signs and symptoms associated with non-fatal overdosage were seizures, somnolence, nausea, tachycardia, and vomiting. The largest known ingestion of fluoxetine hydrochloride in adult patients was 8 grams in a patient who took fluoxetine alone and who subsequently recovered. However, in an adult patient who took fluoxetine alone, an ingestion as low as 520 mg has been associated with lethal outcome, but causality has not been established.
Among pediatric patients (ages 3 months to 17 years), there were 156 cases of overdose involving fluoxetine alone or in combination with other drugs. Six patients died, 127 patients completely recovered, 1 patient experienced renal failure, and 22 patients had an unknown outcome. One of the six fatalities was a 9-year-old boy who had a history of OCD, Tourette’s syndrome with tics, attention deficit disorder, and fetal alcohol syndrome. He had been receiving 100 mg of fluoxetine daily for 6 months in addition to clonidine, methylphenidate, and promethazine. Mixed-drug ingestion or other methods of suicide complicated all 6 overdoses in children that resulted in fatalities. The largest ingestion in pediatric patients was 3 grams which was nonlethal.
Other important adverse reactions reported with fluoxetine overdose (single or multiple drugs) include coma, delirium, ECG abnormalities (such as nodal rhythm, QT interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias, including Torsades de Pointes-type arrhythmias), hypotension, mania, neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like reactions, pyrexia, stupor, and syncope.
10.2 Animal Experience
Studies in animals do not provide precise or necessarily valid information about the treatment of human overdose. However, animal experiments can provide useful insights into possible treatment strategies.
The oral median lethal dose in rats and mice was found to be 452 and 248 mg/kg, respectively. Acute high oral doses produced hyperirritability and convulsions in several animal species.
Among 6 dogs purposely overdosed with oral fluoxetine, 5 experienced grand mal seizures. Seizures stopped immediately upon the bolus intravenous administration of a standard veterinary dose of diazepam. In this short-term study, the lowest plasma concentration at which a seizure occurred was only twice the maximum plasma concentration seen in humans taking 80 mg/day, chronically.
In a separate single-dose study, the ECG of dogs given high doses did not reveal prolongation of the PR, QRS, or QT intervals. Tachycardia and an increase in blood pressure were observed. Consequently, the value of the ECG in predicting cardiac toxicity is unknown. Nonetheless, the ECG should ordinarily be monitored in cases of human overdose.
10.3 Management of Overdose
For current information on the management of PROZAC overdose, contact a certified poison control center (1-800-222-1222 or www.poison.org). Treatment should consist of those general measures employed in the management of overdosage with any drug. Consider the possibility of multi-drug overdose.
Ensure an adequate airway, oxygenation, and ventilation. Monitor cardiac rhythm and vital signs. Use general supportive and symptomatic measures. Induction of emesis is not recommended.
Activated charcoal should be administered. Due to the large volume of distribution of this drug, forced diuresis, dialysis, hemoperfusion, and exchange transfusion are unlikely to be of benefit. No specific antidotes for fluoxetine are known.
A specific caution involves patients who are taking or have recently taken fluoxetine and might ingest excessive quantities of a TCA. In such a case, accumulation of the parent tricyclic and/or an active metabolite may increase the possibility of clinically significant sequelae and extend the time needed for close medical observation.
For specific information about overdosage with olanzapine and fluoxetine in combination, refer to the Overdosage section of the Symbyax package insert.
PROZAC® (fluoxetine capsules, USP) is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor for oral administration. It is also marketed for the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (Sarafem®, fluoxetine hydrochloride). It is designated (±)-N-methyl-3-phenyl-3-[(α,α,α-trifluoro-p-tolyl)oxy]propylamine hydrochloride and has the empirical formula of C17H18F3NO•HCl. Its molecular weight is 345.79. The structural formula is:
Fluoxetine hydrochloride is a white to off-white crystalline solid with a solubility of 14 mg/mL in water.
Each Pulvule® contains fluoxetine hydrochloride equivalent to 10 mg (32.3 μmol), 20 mg (64.7 μmol), or 40 mg (129.3 μmol) of fluoxetine. The Pulvules also contain starch, gelatin, silicone, titanium dioxide, iron oxide, and other inactive ingredients. The 10 and 20 mg Pulvules also contain FD&C Blue No. 1, and the 40 mg Pulvule also contains FD&C Blue No. 1 and FD&C Yellow No. 6.
PROZAC Weekly™ capsules, a delayed-release formulation, contain enteric-coated pellets of fluoxetine hydrochloride equivalent to 90 mg (291 μmol) of fluoxetine. The capsules also contain D&C Yellow No. 10, FD&C Blue No. 2, gelatin, hypromellose, hypromellose acetate succinate, sodium lauryl sulfate, sucrose, sugar spheres, talc, titanium dioxide, triethyl citrate, and other inactive ingredients.