|Labeler Name||West-Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp.|
|Dosage & Substance||tablet losartan potassium; hydrochlorothiazide|
|Date First Marketed||October 06, 2010|
Losartan potassium and hydrochlorothiazide is indicated for the treatment of hypertension, to lower blood pressure. Lowering blood pressure lowers the risk of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular (CV) events, primarily strokes and myocardial infarction. These benefits have been seen in controlled trials of antihypertensive drugs from a wide variety of pharmacologic classes including losartan and hydrochlorothiazide.
Control of high blood pressure should be part of comprehensive cardiovascular risk management, including, as appropriate, lipid control, diabetes management, antithrombotic therapy, smoking cessation, exercise, and limited sodium intake. Many patients will require more than 1 drug to achieve blood pressure goals. For specific advice on goals and management, see published guidelines, such as those of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program’s Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC).
Numerous antihypertensive drugs, from a variety of pharmacologic classes and with different mechanisms of action, have been shown in randomized controlled trials to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and it can be concluded that it is blood pressure reduction, and not some other pharmacologic property of the drugs, that is largely responsible for those benefits. The largest and most consistent cardiovascular outcome benefit has been a reduction in the risk of stroke, but reductions in myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality also have been seen regularly.
Elevated systolic or diastolic pressure causes increased cardiovascular risk, and the absolute risk increase per mmHg is greater at higher blood pressures, so that even modest reductions of severe hypertension can provide substantial benefit. Relative risk reduction from blood pressure reduction is similar across populations with varying absolute risk, so the absolute benefit is greater in patients who are at higher risk independent of their hypertension (for example, patients with diabetes or hyperlipidemia), and such patients would be expected to benefit from more aggressive treatment to a lower blood pressure goal.
Some antihypertensive drugs have smaller blood pressure effects (as monotherapy) in black patients, and many antihypertensive drugs have additional approved indications and effects (e.g., on angina, heart failure, or diabetic kidney disease). These considerations may guide selection of therapy.
This fixed dose combination is not indicated for initial therapy of hypertension, except when the hypertension is severe enough that the value of achieving prompt blood pressure control exceeds the risk of initiating combination therapy in these patientsandDosage and Administration (2.1)].
Losartan potassium and hydrochlorothiazide may be administered with other antihypertensive agents.
1.2 Hypertensive Patients with Left Ventricular Hypertrophy
Losartan potassium and hydrochlorothiazide is indicated to reduce the risk of stroke in patients with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy, but there is evidence that this benefit does not apply to Black patientsandDosage and Administration (2)].
Losartan potassium and hydrochlorothiazide is contraindicated:
- In patients who are hypersensitive to any component of this product.
- In patients with anuria
- For coadministration with aliskiren in patients with diabetes
6.1 Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
Losartan potassium-hydrochlorothiazide has been evaluated for safety in 858 patients treated for essential hypertension and 3889 patients treated for hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy. Most adverse reactions have been mild and transient in nature and have not required discontinuation of therapy. In controlled clinical trials, discontinuation of therapy due to clinical adverse events was required in only 2.8% and 2.3% of patients treated with the combination and placebo, respectively.
In these double-blind controlled clinical trials, adverse reactions occurring in greater than 2% of subjects treated with losartan-hydrochlorothiazide and at a greater rate than placebo were: back pain (2.1% vs 0.6%), dizziness (5.7% vs 2.9%), and upper respiratory infection (6.1% vs 4.6%). The following additional adverse reactions have been reported in clinical trials with losartan potassium and hydrochlorothiazide and/or the individual components:
Anemia, aplastic anemia, hemolytic anemia, leukopenia, agranulocytosis.
Anorexia, hyperglycemia, hyperuricemia, electrolyte imbalance including hyponatremia and hypokalemia.
Dysgeusia, headache, migraine, paraesthesias.
Xanthopsia, transient blurred vision.
Dose-related orthostatic effects, necrotizing angiitis (vasculitis, cutaneous vasculitis).
Nasal congestion, pharyngitis, sinus disorder, respiratory distress (including pneumonitis and pulmonary edema).
Dyspepsia, abdominal pain, gastric irritation, cramping, diarrhea, constipation, nausea, vomiting, pancreatitis, sialoadenitis.
Jaundice (intrahepatic cholestatic jaundice).
Rash, pruritus, purpura, toxic epidermal necrolysis, urticaria, photosensitivity, cutaneous lupus erythematosus.
Muscle cramps, muscle spasm, myalgia, arthralgia.
Glycosuria, renal dysfunction, interstitial nephritis, renal failure.
Chest pain, edema/swelling, malaise, fever, weakness.
Liver function abnormalities.
Persistent dry cough has been associated with ACE-inhibitor use and in practice can be a cause of discontinuation of ACE-inhibitor therapy. Two prospective, parallel-group, double-blind, randomized, controlled trials were conducted to assess the effects of losartan on the incidence of cough in hypertensive patients who had experienced cough while receiving ACE-inhibitor therapy. Patients who had typical ACE-inhibitor cough when challenged with lisinopril, whose cough disappeared on placebo, were randomized to losartan 50 mg, lisinopril 20 mg, or either placebo (one study, n=97) or 25 mg hydrochlorothiazide (n=135). The double-blind treatment period lasted up to 8 weeks. The incidence of cough is shown in Table 1 below.
Study 1 *
Study 2 †
These studies demonstrate that the incidence of cough associated with losartan therapy, in a population that all had cough associated with ACE-inhibitor therapy, is similar to that associated with hydrochlorothiazide or placebo therapy.
Cases of cough, including positive re-challenges, have been reported with the use of losartan in postmarketing experience.
6.2 Postmarketing Experience
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of losartan potassium and hydrochlorothiazide. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to estimate their frequency reliably or to establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Hepatitis has been reported rarely in patients treated with losartan.
Angioedema, including swelling of the larynx and glottis, causing airway obstruction and/or swelling of the face, lips, pharynx, and/or tongue has been reported rarely in patients treated with losartan; some of these patients previously experienced angioedema with other drugs including ACE inhibitors. Vasculitis, including Henoch-Schönlein purpura, has been reported with losartan. Anaphylactic reactions have been reported.
5.1 Fetal Toxicity
Use of drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy reduces fetal renal function and increases fetal and neonatal morbidity and death. Resulting oligohydramnios can be associated with fetal lung hypoplasia and skeletal deformations. Potential neonatal adverse effects include skull hypoplasia, anuria, hypotension, renal failure, and death. When pregnancy is detected, discontinue losartan potassium and hydrochlorothiazide as soon as possible.
Thiazides cross the placental barrier and appear in cord blood. Adverse reactions include fetal or neonatal jaundice, thrombocytopenia.
5.2 Hypotension in Volume- or Salt-Depleted Patients
In patients with an activated renin-angiotensin system, such as volume- or salt-depleted patients (e.g., those being treated with high doses of diuretics), symptomatic hypotension may occur after initiation of treatment with losartan potassium and hydrochlorothiazide. Correct volume or salt depletion prior to administration of losartan potassium and hydrochlorothiazide. Do not use losartan potassium and hydrochlorothiazide as initial therapy in patients with intravascular volume depletion.
5.3 Impaired Renal Function
Changes in renal function including acute renal failure can be caused by drugs that inhibit the reninangiotensin system and by diuretics. Patients whose renal function may depend in part on the activity of the renin-angiotensin system (e.g., patients with renal artery stenosis, chronic kidney disease, severe congestive heart failure, or volume depletion) may be at particular risk of developing acute renal failure on losartan potassium and hydrochlorothiazide. Monitor renal function periodically in these patients. Consider withholding or discontinuing therapy in patients who develop a clinically significant decrease in renal function on losartan potassium and hydrochlorothiazideandUse in Specific Populations (8.8)].
Hypersensitivity reactions to hydrochlorothiazide may occur in patients with or without a history of allergy or bronchial asthma, but are more likely in patients with such a history.
5.5 Electrolyte and Metabolic Effects
In double-blind clinical trials of various doses of losartan potassium and hydrochlorothiazide, the incidence of hypertensive patients who developed hypokalemia (serum potassium <3.5 mEq/L) was 6.7% versus 3.5% for placebo; the incidence of hyperkalemia (serum potassium >5.7 mEq/L) was 0.4% versus 0% for placebo.
Losartan potassium and hydrochlorothiazide contains hydrochlorothiazide which can cause hypokalemia, hyponatremia and hypomagnesemia. Hypomagnesemia can result in hypokalemia which may be difficult to treat despite potassium repletion. Losartan potassium and hydrochlorothiazide also contains losartan which can cause hyperkalemia. Monitor serum electrolytes periodically.
Hydrochlorothiazide may alter glucose tolerance and raise serum levels of cholesterol and triglycerides.
Hyperuricemia may occur or frank gout may be precipitated in patients receiving thiazide therapy. Because losartan decreases uric acid, losartan in combination with hydrochlorothiazide attenuates the diuretic-induced hyperuricemia.
Hydrochlorothiazide decreases urinary calcium excretion and may cause elevations of serum calcium. Monitor calcium levels.
5.6 Acute Myopia and Secondary Angle-Closure Glaucoma
Hydrochlorothiazide, a sulfonamide, can cause an idiosyncratic reaction, resulting in acute transient myopia and acute angle-closure glaucoma. Symptoms include acute onset of decreased visual acuity or ocular pain and typically occur within hours to weeks of drug initiation. Untreated acute angle-closure glaucoma can lead to permanent vision loss. The primary treatment is to discontinue hydrochlorothiazide as rapidly as possible. Prompt medical or surgical treatments may need to be considered if the intraocular pressure remains uncontrolled. Risk factors for developing acute angle-closure glaucoma may include a history of sulfonamide or penicillin allergy.
5.7 Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Thiazide diuretics have been reported to cause exacerbation or activation of systemic lupus erythematosus.
5.8 Postsympathectomy Patients
The antihypertensive effects of the drug may be enhanced in the postsympathectomy patient.
Significant lethality was observed in mice and rats after oral administration of 1000 mg/kg and 2000 mg/kg, respectively, about 44 and 170 times the maximum recommended human dose on a mg/m2 basis.
Limited data are available in regard to overdosage in humans. The most likely manifestation of overdosage would be hypotension and tachycardia; bradycardia could occur from parasympathetic (vagal) stimulation. If symptomatic hypotension should occur, supportive treatment should be instituted.
Neither losartan nor its active metabolite can be removed by hemodialysis.
The oral LD50 of hydrochlorothiazide is greater than 10 g/kg in both mice and rats. The most common signs and symptoms observed are those caused by electrolyte depletion (hypokalemia, hypochloremia, hyponatremia) and dehydration resulting from excessive diuresis. If digitalis has also been administered, hypokalemia may accentuate cardiac arrhythmias. The degree to which hydrochlorothiazide is removed by hemodialysis has not been established.
Losartan potassium and hydrochlorothiazide combine an angiotensin II receptor blocker acting on the AT1 receptor subtype and a diuretic, hydrochlorothiazide.
Losartan potassium, a non‑peptide molecule, is chemically described as 2‑butyl‑4‑chloro‑1‑[p‑(o‑1H‑tetrazol-5‑ylphenyl)benzyl]imidazole‑5‑methanol monopotassium salt. Its molecular formula is C22H22ClKN6O, and its structural formula is:
Losartan potassium USP is a white to off‑white powder with a molecular weight of 461.01. It is freely soluble in water, soluble in alcohols, and slightly soluble in common organic solvents, such as acetonitrile and methyl ethyl ketone.
Oxidation of the 5‑hydroxymethyl group on the imidazole ring results in the active metabolite of losartan.
Hydrochlorothiazide is 6‑chloro‑3,4‑dihydro‑2H‑1,2,4‑benzothiadiazine‑7‑sulfonamide 1,1‑dioxide. Its molecular formula is C7H8ClN3O4S2 and its structural formula is:
Hydrochlorothiazide USP is a white or almost white crystalline powder with a molecular weight of 297.74, which is slightly soluble in water, but freely soluble in sodium hydroxide solution.
Losartan Potassium and Hydrochlorothiazide Tablets USP are available for oral administration containing either 50 mg/12.5 mg, 100 mg/12.5 mg or 100 mg/25 mg of losartan potassium USP and hydrochlorothiazide USP. Each tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: lactose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose and pregelatinized starch. In addition to these ingredients the 50 mg/12.5 mg and 100 mg/25 mg tablets also contain Opadry II (Yellow), and the 100 mg/12.5 mg tablet contains Opadry II (White). Opadry II (Yellow) contains: D&C yellow #10 aluminum lake, hypromellose, lactose monohydrate, polyethylene glycol, titanium dioxide and triacetin. Opadry II (White) contains: hypromellose, polyethylene glycol, polydextrose, titanium dioxide and triacetin.
Losartan Potassium and Hydrochlorothiazide Tablets USP 50 mg/12.5 mg contains 4.24 mg (0.108 mEq) of potassium, Losartan Potassium and Hydrochlorothiazide Tablets USP 100 mg/12.5 mg contains 8.48 mg (0.216 mEq) of potassium, and Losartan Potassium and Hydrochlorothiazide Tablets USP 100 mg/25 mg contains 8.48 mg (0.216 mEq) of potassium.