Lantus Solostar (Insulin Glargine)


Indications

LANTUS is indicated to improve glycemic control in adults and pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Limitations of Use

LANTUS is not recommended for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis.

. contraindications

LANTUS is contraindicated

  • During episodes of hypoglycemia
  • In patients with hypersensitivity to LANTUS or one of its excipients

. adverse reactions

The following adverse reactions are discussed elsewhere:

  • Hypoglycemia
  • Hypersensitivity and allergic reactions
  • Hypokalemia

6.1 Clinical Trial Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trial of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

The data in Table 1 reflect the exposure of 2327 patients with type 1 diabetes to LANTUS or NPH. The type 1 diabetes population had the following characteristics: Mean age was 38.5 years. Fifty four percent were male, 96.9% were Caucasian, 1.8 % were Black or African American and 2.7 % were Hispanic. The mean BMI was 25.1 kg/m2.

The data in Table 2 reflect the exposure of 1563 patients with type 2 diabetes to LANTUS or NPH. The type 2 diabetes population had the following characteristics: Mean age was 59.3 years. Fifty eight percent were male, 86.7% were Caucasian, 7.8 % were Black or African American and 9 % were Hispanic. The mean BMI was 29.2 kg/m2.

The frequencies of adverse events during LANTUS clinical trials in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes mellitus are listed in the tables below.

Table 1: Adverse events in pooled clinical trials up to 28 weeks duration in adults with type 1 diabetes (adverse events with frequency ≥5%)
LANTUS, %
(n=1257)
NPH, %
(n=1070)
*
Body System not Specified
Upper respiratory tract infection 22.4 23.1
Infection * 9.4 10.3
Accidental injury 5.7 6.4
Headache 5.5 4.7
Table 2: Adverse events in pooled clinical trials up to 1 year duration in adults with type 2 diabetes (adverse events with frequency ≥ 5%)
LANTUS, %
(n=849)
NPH, %
(n=714)
*
Body System not Specified
Upper respiratory tract infection 11.4 13.3
Infection* 10.4 11.6
Retinal vascular disorder 5.8 7.4
Table 3: Adverse events in a 5-year trial of adults with type 2 diabetes (adverse events with frequency ≥ 10%)
LANTUS, %
(n=514)
NPH, %
(n=503)
Upper respiratory tract infection 29.0 33.6
Edema peripheral 20.0 22.7
Hypertension 19.6 18.9
Influenza 18.7 19.5
Sinusitis 18.5 17.9
Cataract 18.1 15.9
Bronchitis 15.2 14.1
Arthralgia 14.2 16.1
Pain in extremity 13.0 13.1
Back pain 12.8 12.3
Cough 12.1 7.4
Urinary tract infection 10.7 10.1
Diarrhea 10.7 10.3
Depression 10.5 9.7
Headache 10.3 9.3
Table 4: Adverse events in a 28-week clinical trial of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (adverse events with frequency ≥ 5% )
LANTUS, %
(n=174)
NPH, %
(n=175)
*
Body System not Specified
Infection* 13.8 17.7
Upper respiratory tract infection 13.8 16.0
Pharyngitis 7.5 8.6
Rhinitis 5.2 5.1

Severe Hypoglycemia

Hypoglycemia is the most commonly observed adverse reaction in patients using insulin, including LANTUS. Tables 5, and 6 and 7 summarize the incidence of severe hypoglycemia in the LANTUS individual clinical trials. Severe symptomatic hypoglycemia was defined as an event with symptoms consistent with hypoglycemia requiring the assistance of another person and associated with either a blood glucose below 50 mg/dL (≤56 mg/dL in the 5-year trial and ≤36 mg/dL in the ORIGIN trial) or prompt recovery after oral carbohydrate, intravenous glucose or glucagon administration.

Percentages of LANTUS-treated adult patients experiencing severe symptomatic hypoglycemia in the LANTUS clinical trialswere comparable to percentages of NPH-treated patients for all treatment regimens (see Tables 5 and 6). In the pediatric phase 3 clinical trial, children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes had a higher incidence of severe symptomatic hypoglycemia in the two treatment groups compared to the adult trials with type 1 diabetes.

Table 5: Severe Symptomatic Hypoglycemia in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes
Study A
Type 1 Diabetes
Adults
28 weeks
In combination with regular insulin
Study B
Type 1 Diabetes
Adults
28 weeks
In combination with regular insulin
Study C
Type 1 Diabetes
Adults
16 weeks
In combination with insulin lispro
Study D
Type 1 Diabetes
Pediatrics
26 weeks
In combination with regular insulin
LANTUS
N=292
NPH
N=293
LANTUS
N=264
NPH
N=270
LANTUS
N=310
NPH
N=309
LANTUS
N=174
NPH
N=175
Percent of patients 10.6 15.0 8.7 10.4 6.5 5.2 23.0 28.6
Table 6: Severe Symptomatic Hypoglycemia in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
Study E
Type 2 Diabetes
Adults
52 weeks
In combination with oral agents
Study F
Type 2 Diabetes
Adults
28 weeks
In combination with regular insulin
Study G
Type 2 Diabetes
Adults
5 years
In combination with regular insulin
LANTUS
N=289
NPH
N=281
LANTUS
N=259
NPH
N=259
LANTUS
N=513
NPH
N=504
Percent of patients 1.7 1.1 0.4 2.3 7.8 11.9

Table 7 displays the proportion of patients experiencing severe symptomatic hypoglycemia in the Lantus and Standard Care groups in the ORIGIN Trial.

Table 7: Severe Symptomatic Hypoglycemia in the ORIGIN trial
ORIGIN Trial
Median duration of follow-up: 6.2 years
LANTUS
N=6231
Standard Care
N=6273
Percent of patients 5.6 1.8

Peripheral Edema

Some patients taking LANTUS have experienced sodium retention and edema, particularly if previously poor metabolic control is improved by intensified insulin therapy.

Lipodystrophy

Administration of insulin subcutaneously, including LANTUS, has resulted in lipoatrophy (depression in the skin) or lipohypertrophy (enlargement or thickening of tissue) in some patients

Insulin initiation and intensification of glucose control

Intensification or rapid improvement in glucose control has been associated with a transitory, reversible ophthalmologic refraction disorder, worsening of diabetic retinopathy, and acute painful peripheral neuropathy. However, long-term glycemic control decreases the risk of diabetic retinopathy and neuropathy.

Weight gain

Weight gain has occurred with some insulin therapies including LANTUS and has been attributed to the anabolic effects of insulin and the decrease in glucosuria.

Allergic Reactions

As with any insulin therapy, patients taking LANTUS may experience injection site reactions, including redness, pain, itching, urticaria, edema, and inflammation. In clinical studies in adult patients, there was a higher incidence of treatment-emergent injection site pain in LANTUS-treated patients (2.7%) compared to NPH insulin-treated patients (0.7%). The reports of pain at the injection site did not result in discontinuation of therapy.

Severe, life-threatening, generalized allergy, including anaphylaxis, generalized skin reactions, angioedema, bronchospasm, hypotension, and shock may occur with any insulin, including LANTUS and may be life threatening.

6.2 Immunogenicity

As with all therapeutic proteins, there is potential for immunogenicity. All insulin products can elicit the formation of insulin antibodies. The presence of such insulin antibodies may increase or decrease the efficacy of insulin and may require adjustment of the insulin dose. In phase 3 clinical trials of LANTUS, increases in titers of antibodies to insulin were observed in NPH insulin and LANTUS treatment groups with similar incidences.

6.3 Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of LANTUS. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Medication errors have been reported in which other insulins, particularly rapid-acting insulins, have been accidentally administered instead of LANTUS. To avoid medication errors between LANTUS and other insulins, patients should be instructed to always verify the insulin label before each injection.

. warnings and precautions

5.1 Never Share a LANTUS SoloStar Prefilled Pen, Syringe, or Needle between Patients

LANTUS SoloStar prefilled pens must never be shared between patients, even if the needle is changed. Patients using LANTUS vials must never reuse or share needles or syringes with another person. Sharing poses a risk for transmission of blood-borne pathogens.

5.2 Hyperglycemia or Hypoglycemia with Changes in Insulin Regimen

Changes in insulin strength, manufacturer, type, or method of administration may affect glycemic control and predispose to hypoglycemiaor hyperglycemia. These changes should be made cautiously and only under close medical supervision, and the frequency of blood glucose monitoring should be increased. For patients with type 2 diabetes, dosage adjustments of concomitant oral and anti-diabetic products may be needed.

5.3 Hypoglycemia

Hypoglycemia is the most common adverse reaction associated with insulin, including LANTUS. Severe hypoglycemia can cause seizures, may be life-threatening or cause death. Hypoglycemia can impair concentration ability and reaction time; this may place an individual and others at risk in situations where these abilities are important (e.g., driving or operating other machinery).

Hypoglycemia can happen suddenly and symptoms may differ in each individual and change over time in the same individual. Symptomatic awareness of hypoglycemia may be less pronounced in patients with longstanding diabetes, in patients with diabetic nerve disease, in patients using medications that block the sympathetic nervous system (e.g., beta-blockers), or in patients who experience recurrent hypoglycemia.

Risk Factors for Hypoglycemia

The risk of hypoglycemia after an injection is related to the duration of action of the insulin and, in general, is highest when the glucose lowering effect of the insulin is maximal. As with all insulin preparations, the glucose lowering effect time course of LANTUS may vary in different individuals or at different times in the same individual and depends on many conditions, including the area of injection as well as the injection site blood supply and temperatureOther factors which may increase the risk of hypoglycemia include changes in meal pattern (e.g., macronutrient content or timing of meals), changes in level of physical activity, or changes to co-administered medicationPatients with renal or hepatic impairment may be at higher risk of hypoglycemia

Risk Mitigation Strategies for Hypoglycemia

Patients and caregivers must be educated to recognize and manage hypoglycemia. Self-monitoring of blood glucose plays an essential role in the prevention and management of hypoglycemia. In patients at higher risk for hypoglycemia and patients who have reduced symptomatic awareness of hypoglycemia, increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring is recommended.

The long-acting effect of LANTUS may delay recovery from hypoglycemia.

5.4 Medication Errors

Accidental mix-ups among insulin products, particularly between long-acting insulins and rapid-acting insulins, have been reported. To avoid medication errors between LANTUS and other insulins, instruct patients to always check the insulin label before each injection.

5.5 Hypersensitivity and Allergic Reactions

Severe, life-threatening, generalized allergy, including anaphylaxis, can occur with insulin products, including LANTUS. If hypersensitivity reactions occur, discontinue LANTUS; treat per standard of care and monitor until symptoms and signs resolve. LANTUS is contraindicated in patients who have had hypersensitivity reactions to insulin glargine or one of the excipients [see Contraindications (4)].

5.6 Hypokalemia

All insulin products, including LANTUS, cause a shift in potassium from the extracellular to intracellular space, possibly leading to hypokalemia. Untreated hypokalemia may cause respiratory paralysis, ventricular arrhythmia, and death. Monitor potassium levels in patients at risk for hypokalemia if indicated (e.g., patients using potassium-lowering medications, patients taking medications sensitive to serum potassium concentrations).

5.7 Fluid Retention and Heart Failure with Concomitant Use of PPAR-gamma Agonists

Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), which are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma agonists, can cause dose-related fluid retention, particularly when used in combination with insulin. Fluid retention may lead to or exacerbate heart failure. Patients treated with insulin, including LANTUS, and a PPAR-gamma agonist should be observed for signs and symptoms of heart failure. If heart failure develops, it should be managed according to current standards of care, and discontinuation or dose reduction of the PPAR-gamma agonist must be considered.

. overdosage

Excess insulin administration may cause hypoglycemia and hypokalemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3, 5.6)]. Mild episodes of hypoglycemia can usually be treated with oral carbohydrates. Adjustments in drug dosage, meal patterns, or exercise may be needed.

More severe episodes of hypoglycemia with coma, seizure, or neurologic impairment may be treated with intramuscular/subcutaneous glucagon or concentrated intravenous glucose. After apparent clinical recovery from hypoglycemia, continued observation and additional carbohydrate intake may be necessary to avoid recurrence of hypoglycemia. Hypokalemia must be corrected appropriately.

. description

LANTUS (insulin glargine injection) is a sterile solution of insulin glargine for subcutaneous use. Insulin glargine is a recombinant human insulin analog that is a long-acting, parenteral blood-glucose-lowering agent Insulin glargine has low aqueous solubility at neutral pH. At pH 4 insulin glargine is completely soluble. After injection into the subcutaneous tissue, the acidic solution is neutralized, leading to formation of microprecipitates from which small amounts of insulin glargine are slowly released, resulting in a relatively constant concentration/time profile over 24 hours with no pronounced peak. This profile allows once-daily dosing as a basal insulin. LANTUS is produced by recombinant DNA technology utilizing a non-pathogenic laboratory strain of (K12) as the production organism. Insulin glargine differs from human insulin in that the amino acid asparagine at position A21 is replaced by glycine and two arginines are added to the C-terminus of the B-chain. Chemically, insulin glargine is 21A-Gly-30Ba-L-Arg-30Bb-L-Arg-human insulin and has the empirical formula C267H404N72O78S6 and a molecular weight of 6063. Insulin glargine has the following structural formula:

LANTUS consists of insulin glargine dissolved in a clear aqueous fluid. Each milliliter of LANTUS (insulin glargine injection) contains 100 Units (3.6378 mg) insulin glargine.

The 10 mL vial presentation contains the following inactive ingredients per mL: 30 mcg zinc, 2.7 mg m-cresol, 20 mg glycerol 85%, 20 mcg polysorbate 20, and water for injection.

The 3 mL prefilled pen presentation contains the following inactive ingredients per mL: 30 mcg zinc, 2.7 mg m-cresol, 20 mg glycerol 85%, and water for injection.

The pH is adjusted by addition of aqueous solutions of hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide. LANTUS has a pH of approximately 4.

Lantus Solostar Package Photos

About the Author

Truman Lewis
Truman has been a bureau chief and correspondent in D.C., Los Angeles, Phoenix and elsewhere, reporting for radio, television, print and news services, for more than 30 years. Most recently, he has reported extensively on health and consumer issues for ConsumerAffairs.com and FairfaxNews.com.